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Where Does All Our Oil Come From?
 
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We rely on oil to power our lives, but how do we go about getting it? How does oil even form? Read More: Fossil Fuel http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/f/fossil_fuel.htm "Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals." If We Dig Out All Our Fossil Fuels, Here's How Hot We Can Expect It to Get http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/09/upshot/if-we-dig-out-all-our-fossil-fuels-heres-how-hot-we-can-expect-it-to-get.html?abt=0002&abg=1 "World leaders are once again racing to avert disastrous levels of global warming through limits on greenhouse gas emissions." How Oil Drilling Works http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/oil-drilling4.htm "Once the equipment is at the site, the crew sets the rig up." How Hydraulic Fracking Works http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/hydraulic-fracking.htm "With tumultuous gas prices and dependence on unsustainable fossil fuels at a high, there's a desperate need to find alternative energy sources" How do we get oil and gas out of the ground? http://www.world-petroleum.org/index.php?/Education/how-do-we-get-oil-and-gas-out-of-the-ground.html "Oil and gas can get trapped in pockets underground such as where the rocks are folded into an umbrella shape." A cleaner way to get petroleum out of oil sands http://www.cbsnews.com/news/new-process-washes-the-petroleum-off-oil-sands/ "The secret to business is buy low and sell high. Canadian holding company MCW Energy Group hopes to do that by economically separating the petroleum from oil sands and then selling it at market rates of double to triple the processing costs." ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Julia Wilde on Twitter https://twitter.com/julia_sci DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Download the TestTube App: http://testu.be/1ndmmMq
Views: 143994 Seeker
Natural Language Processing: Crash Course Computer Science #36
 
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Today we’re going to talk about how computers understand speech and speak themselves. As computers play an increasing role in our daily lives there has been an growing demand for voice user interfaces, but speech is also terribly complicated. Vocabularies are diverse, sentence structures can often dictate the meaning of certain words, and computers also have to deal with accents, mispronunciations, and many common linguistic faux pas. The field of Natural Language Processing, or NLP, attempts to solve these problems, with a number of techniques we’ll discuss today. And even though our virtual assistants like Siri, Alexa, Google Home, Bixby, and Cortana have come a long way from the first speech processing and synthesis models, there is still much room for improvement. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Want to know more about Carrie Anne? https://about.me/carrieannephilbin The Latest from PBS Digital Studios: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrash... Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 184583 CrashCourse
Oil Drilling | Oil & Gas Animations
 
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- Like our Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/oilvips - Geologists and geophysicists have agreed on the existence of a "prospect", a potential field. In order to find out if hydrocarbons are indeed trapped in the reservoir rock, we must drill to hit them. Bearing in mind the knowledge acquired about the substratum and the topography of the land, the best position for the installation of the drilling equipment is determined. Generally it is vertically above the point of maximum thickness of the geological layer suspected of containing hydrocarbons. The drillers then make a hole in conditions that are sometimes difficult. Of small diameter (from 20 to 50 cm) this hole will generally go down to a depth of between 2000 and 4000 meters. Exceptionally, certain wells exceed 6000 m. One of them has even exceeded 11 000 m! Certain fields can be buried at a depth equivalent to the height of 12 Eiffel Towers ... The derrick is the visible part of the drilling rig. It is a metal tower several tens of meters high. It is used to vertically introduce the drill strings down the hole. These drill strings are made up of metallic tubes screwed end to end. They transmit a rotating movement (rotary drilling) to the drilling tool (the drill bit) and help circulate a liquid called "mud" (because of its appearance) down to the bottom of the well. The drilling rig works like an enormous electric hand-drill of which the derrick would be the body, the drill strings the drive and the drilling tool the drill bit. The most usual tool is an assembly of three cones -- from which comes the name "tri cone" -- in very hard steel, which crushes the rock. Sometimes when the rock being drilled is very resistant, a single- block tool encrusted with diamonds is used. This wears down the rock by abrasion. Through the drill pipes, at the extremity of which the drill bit rotates, a special mud is injected, which the mud engineer prepares and controls. This mud cools the drill bit and consolidates the sides of the borehole. Moreover it avoids a gushing of oil, gas or water from the layer being drilled, by equilibrating the pressure. Finally, the mud cleans the bottom of the well. As it makes its way along the pipes, it carries the rock fragments (cuttings) to the surface. The geologist examines these cuttings to discover the characteristics of the rocks being drilled and to detect eventual shows of hydrocarbons. The cuttings, fragments of rock crushed by the drill bit, are brought back up to the surface by the mud. To obtain information on the characteristics of the rock being drilled, a core sample is taken. The drill bit is replaced by a hollow tool called a core sampler, which extracts a cylindrical sample of several meters of rock. This core supplies data on the nature of the rock, the inclination of the layers, the structure, permeability, porosity, fluid content and the fossils present. After having drilled a few hundred of meters, the explorers and drillers undertake measurements down the hole called loggings, by lowering electronic tools into the well to measure the physical parameters of the rock being drilled. These measures validate, or invalidate, or make more precise the hypotheses put forward earlier about the rocks and the fluids that they contain. The log engineer is responsible for the analysis of the results of the various loggings. The sides of the well are then reinforced by steel tubes screwed end to end. These tubes (called casings) are cemented into the ground. They isolate the various layers encountered. When hydrocarbons are found, and if the pressure is sufficient to allow them come to the surface naturally, the drillers do a flow check. The oil is allowed to come to the surface during several hours or several days through a calibrated hole. The quantity recovered is measured, as are the changes in pressure at the bottom of the well. In this way, a little more knowledge is gained about the probable productivity of the field. If the field seems promising, the exploration team ends the first discovery well and goes on to drill a second, even several others, several hundred or thousand meters further away. In this way, the exploration team is able to refine its knowledge about the characteristics of the field. The decision to stop drilling is made only when all these appraisal wells have provided sufficient information either to give up the exploration or to envisage future production. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Like our Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/oilvips Twitter: https://twitter.com/oilvips And Don't forget to subscribe to our channel
Views: 768126 Oil & Gas Videos
Hydrocarbon | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Hydrocarbon 00:00:52 1 Types of hydrocarbons 00:02:53 1.1 General properties 00:05:03 1.2 Simple hydrocarbons and their variations 00:05:14 2 Usage 00:07:34 3 Poisoning 00:08:21 4 Reactions 00:08:39 4.1 Substitution reactions 00:09:38 4.2 Addition reactions 00:09:58 4.3 Combustion 00:11:39 4.3.1 Petroleum/Petrol 00:12:56 4.3.2 Bioremediation 00:13:24 5 Safety 00:14:02 6 Environmental impact 00:14:33 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls. Because carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost shell (and because each covalent bond requires a donation of 1 electron, per atom, to the bond) carbon has exactly four bonds to make, and is only stable if all 4 of these bonds are used. Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons. Most hydrocarbons found on Earth naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains.
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Businesswoman of the Year Awards 2016
 
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The Businesswomen’s Association (BWA) of South Africa has announced the winners of the 2016 Businesswoman of the Year Award (BWOYA) in the categories of corporate, government, social entrepreneurship, education, and science and technology. Sponsored by Sasol, the awards boast a long proud history of recognising and celebrating the role and contribution of women in business, the economy and the greater community. This year, for the first time, the awards also recognise women in the fields of education, social entrepreneurship and science and technology. This year’s ceremony also includes a Lifetime Achievement Award. “The BWA congratulates all the finalists and winners of this year’s awards. These are all outstanding leaders both in terms of their respective business achievements as well as who they are as people,” said Farzanah Mall, President of BWA. “The finalists and winners do, to a much greater degree than most, instil hope in those they lead and interact with, and practice being relevant and authentic, which is why they stand out among their peers. We are proud of our continued association with BWA and the ongoing advocacy work it undertakes to promote the role of women in leadership,” said Wrenelle Stander, Senior Vice President for Public Affairs and Real Estate Services at Sasol. The winners in each of the categories are: Corporate: Funeka Montjane, Chief Executive: Personal and Business Banking, South Africa at Standard Bank. Before joining Standard Bank, Montjane worked at PricewaterhouseCoopers where she became a partner at the age of 27. She’s the winner of several awards including the Top Woman Executive and Top Woman of the Year in Business at the 2012 Top Women Awards. Government: Dr Rolene Wagner, CEO of Frere Hospital in the Eastern Cape. Turning around a large and poorly performing a public hospital is not an easy task. However, it is one in which Wagner has made significant progress. Under her leadership, Frere Hospital is pursuing its vision to become a people-focused centre of medical excellence. Achievements since joining the hospital in 2012 include launching a training programme for specialist doctors from around the world. Social entrepreneurship: Mary Raletooane, Director at Itekeng Disable Centre for disabled, orphaned and vulnerable children. A born community leader, Raletooane has initiated a number of community engagement projects. These include Setsoto Women Empowerment, Adopt-a-River, and a sewing group for unemployed women. She was a matron at Itekeng Centre before being appointed Director. Education: Prof Mamokgethi Phakeng: Deputy Vice Chancellor for Research and Internationalisation at the University of Cape Town. Phakeng is the founder of the Adopt-a-learner Foundation, which provides financial and educational support to students from township and rural areas to acquire higher education qualifications. In 2008, she became the first South African woman to be appointed to co-chair a study commissioned by the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction. Phakeng holds a PhD in Mathematics Education from the University of the Witwatersrand, and has won several awards for her research and community work, the latest being the Order of the Baobab, Silver. . Science and Technology: Prof Leslie Petrik, lecturer at University of the Western Cape. As a scientist, Petrik has worked closely with the water, power, mining and hydrocarbon processing industry to better manage waste and effluents to find feasible routes for its reuse or water recovery. Since 2003, she has graduated 18 PhD, 42 MSc students and mentored 20 Post-doctoral fellows who have entered the marketplace with sought after skills. She has also published 116 peer reviewed journal articles and presented 251 conference papers or posters at local and international conferences, written 13 book chapters, 56 technical reports to industry and holds several patents. Lifetime Achievement Award: Graça Machel, politician, businesswoman and humanitarian. Best known for her work in the areas of education and human rights, Machel is also a global advocate for the development and empowerment of women and children in Africa. She’s the founder of the Graça Machel Trust, which works across the continent to advocate for the protection of women and children’s rights and dignity. The objective of the Trust is to inspire a young generation to create societies that value and uphold social justice. In addition to her humanitarian efforts, she is also an astute businesswoman.
Views: 2690 Sasol
Fossil Fuels 101
 
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Fossil fuel is a term used to describe a group of energy sources that were formed when ancient plants and organisms were subject to intense heat and pressure over millions of years. Learn more about the fossil fuels and all types of energy at www.studentenergy.org
Views: 659001 Student Energy
New ceramic coating material may turn hypersonic travel into a reality
 
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Contact [email protected] to license this or any News Direct video For story suggestions please contact [email protected] RESTRICTIONS: NONE Researchers from Britain and China have developed a new ceramic material that could be used as a coating material in hypersonic planes, which allows them to withstand the extreme temperatures generated by flying at hypersonic speed. Objects travelling at hypersonic speed have to withstand surface temperatures of up to 3,000 degrees Celsius, which is enough to melt materials commonly used in current aircraft construction. The new ablation-resistant carbide is a substitutional solid solution of zirconium and titanium with boron atoms. It is made by densifying a carbon fibre preform which is a reaction melt infiltrated to create a carbide composite by chemical vapour infiltration using CH4 and H2 gases. The surface region of the carbide comprises of up to 75% ceramic and 25% carbon, which is dense enough to act as a barrier to resist oxidation and extreme heat of up to 3,000 degrees Celsius. Existing ultra-high temperature ceramics, such as zirconium carbide, is commercially used in tool bits for cutting tools. Researchers say the new carbide coating is 12 times better than the existing ones. The study was led by researchers at The University of Manchester in collaboration with China's Central South University. It was published in the journal Nature Communications. RUNDOWN SHOWS: 1. Extreme heat generated when travelling at hypersonic speed 2. The process of making the new ablation-resistant carbide 3. The surface of the carbide contains 75% ceramics and 25% carbon; top surface can resist extreme heat 4. Conventional ultra-high temperature ceramics zirconium carbide used to make tool bits; new carbide is less susceptible to heat than conventional UHTC VOICEOVER (in English): "Objects travelling at hypersonic speed have to withstand surface temperatures of up to 3,000 degrees Celsius, which is enough to melt materials commonly used in current aircraft construction." "The ablation-resistant carbide is made by densifying a carbon fibre preform using chemical vapour infiltration. The preform is a reaction melt that is infiltrated to create a carbide composite. It is then further densified by chemical vapour infiltration." "The surface area of the carbide is comprised of up to 75% ceramic and 25% carbon, which is dense enough to act as a barrier to resist oxidation and extreme heat." "Existing ultra-high temperature ceramics, such as zirconium carbide, is commercially used in tool bits for cutting tools. Researchers say the new carbide coating is 12 times more effective than existing ones." SOURCES: Nature Communications, The University of Manchester, New Atlas https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15836 http://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/chances-of-hypersonic-travel-heat-up-with-new-materials-discovery/ http://newatlas.com/ceramic-hypersonic-travel/50397/ *** For story suggestions please contact [email protected] For technical and editorial support, please contact: Asia: +61 2 93 73 1841 Europe: +44 20 7542 7599 Americas and Latam: +1 800 738 8377 ----------------------------------------­­---------------------------------------­-­---------------- Next Animation Studio’s News Direct service provides daily, high-quality, informative 3D news animations that fill in for missing footage and help viewers understand breaking news stories or in-depth features on science, technology, and health. Sign up for a free trial of News Direct's news animations at http://newsdirect.nextanimationstudio.com/trial/ To subscribe to News Direct or for more info, please visit: http://newsdirect.nextanimationstudio.com
Views: 1002 News Direct
Golden Rice (GMO) or Vitmain A Fortified Rice
 
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Golden rice is a somewhat controversial product. Canada has approved its widespread production for commercial sale. Many smaller and often developing countries have refused to approve it. So what is golden rice? Golden rice is one of the better known and tested GMO crops. It is a vitamin A fortified food and since its inception a raft of new products have been developed . The reason golden rice was developed is the need for an economical and efficient delivery of food in regions where alternatives are difficult to deliver, distribute, have limited efficacy and shelf life. As with most GMO technology It has been vilified to a certain extent by extreme groups. Some view it as a abomination of the world order others as an unnatural and wholly artificial monstrosity. There are varying takes on how far off the mark these are but most sources agree there are fundamental misconceptions of how GMO technology works in this specific and other more general cases. This is a development supported by the Bill and Melinda gates foundation due to its promise. Relevant Links: http://www.goldenrice.org/ https://med.nyu.edu/highschoolbioethics/genetically-modified-organisms-%E2%80%9Cgolden-rice%E2%80%9D-debate https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2013/03/07/173611461/in-a-grain-of-golden-rice-a-world-of-controversy-over-gmo-foods http://irri.org/golden-rice https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2018/02/13/golden-rice-gmo-crop-greenpeace-hates-and-humanitarians-love/ https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/06/28/genetically-engineered-golden-rice.aspx http://www.world-grain.com/articles/news_home/World_Grain_News/2018/02/Golden_rice_receives_food_safe.aspx?ID=%7B202F921B-102A-4CE9-9655-42BBA57224FE%7D&cck=1
World Oil Relaunches in 2015. World Oil Magazine's Website
 
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World Oil, established in 1916, launched a new website in 1916. includes daily news, technical articles, engineering tables and reference information, webcasts, videos, oil and gas information and more.Visit http://www.worldoil.com
Views: 20 J
Bharat Book Presents : Mathematical Methods and Modelling in Hydrocarbon Exploration an
 
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For More Information Kindly Visit On : http://www.bharatbook.com/oil-and-gas-market-research-reports/mathematical-methods-and-modelling-in-hydrocarbon-exploration-and-production.html Hydrocarbon exploration and production incorporate great technology challenges for the oil and gas industry. In order to meet the world's future demand for oil and gas, further technological advance is needed, which in turn requires research across multiple disciplines, including mathematics, geophysics, geology, petroleum engineering, signal processing, and computer science. This book addresses important aspects and fundamental concepts in hydrocarbon exploration and production. Moreover, new developments and recent advances in the relevant research areas are discussed, whereby special emphasis is placed on mathematical methods and modelling. The book reflects the multi-disciplinary character of the hydrocarbon production workflow, ranging from seismic data imaging, seismic analysis and interpretation and geological model building, to numerical reservoir simulation. Various challenges concerning the production workflow are discussed in detail.The thirteen chapters of this joint work, authored by international experts from academic and industrial institutions, include survey papers of expository character as well as original research articles. Large parts of the material presented in this book were developed between November 2000 and April 2004 through the European research and training network NetAGES, "Network for Automated Geometry Extraction from Seismic". The new methods described here are currently being implemented as software tools at Schlumberger Stavanger Research, one of the world's largest service providers to the oil industry.
Views: 176 Energy3b
Natural gas | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Natural gas Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.Natural gas is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Fossil fuel based natural gas is a non-renewable resource.Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas were created over time by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.In petroleum production gas is often burnt as flare gas. The World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas. The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as "gas", especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline, especially in North America, where the term gasoline is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas.
Views: 45 wikipedia tts
How Recycling Works
 
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Join SciShow as we explore what happens to your stuff after you toss it into the little green bin with the arrows on it. ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Justin Ove, Justin Lentz, David Campos, John Szymakowski, Peso255, Jeremy Peng, Avi Yaschin, and Fatima Iqbal. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow Or help support us by becoming our patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow Sources: http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw_2010_rev_factsheet.pdf http://www.economist.com/node/9249262 http://www4.uwm.edu/shwec/publications/cabinet/recycling/Single%20Stream%205-24a.pdf http://www.mcmua.com/sw_recy_singlestream.asp http://www.tappi.org/paperu/all_about_paper/earth_answers/earthanswers_recycle.pdf http://gizmodo.com/5928991/how-to-keep-beer-from-going-bad http://www.wm.com/thinkgreen/what-can-i-recycle.jsp http://www.eurekarecycling.org/imageupload/file/Plastics_Fact_Sheet-2012.pdf http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/02/science/polymers-why-some-recyclable-items-just-dont-mix.html?_r=1 http://www.cpmfg.com/material-recovery-facility/single-stream-recycling/single-stream-recycling-equipment/
Views: 837172 SciShow
Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aqueous_Wastes_from_Petroleum_and_Petrochemical_Plants 00:01:10 Availability in libraries 00:01:58 Book reviews Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8710279398344083 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants is a book about the composition and treatment of the various wastewater streams produced in the hydrocarbon processing industries (i.e., oil refineries, petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants). When it was published in 1967, it was the first book devoted to that subject. The book is notable for being the first technical publication of a method for the rigorous tray-by-tray design of steam distillation towers for removing hydrogen sulfide from oil refinery wastewaters. Such towers are commonly referred to as sour water strippers. The design method was also presented at a World Petroleum Congress Meeting shortly after the book was published.The subjects covered in the book include wastewater pollutants and the pertinent governmental regulations, oil refinery and petrochemical plant wastewater effluents, treatment methods, miscellaneous effluents, data on the cost of various wastewater treatment methods, and an extensive reference list.
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
5 Chemicals That Are in (Almost) Everything You Eat
 
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Discover 5 key chemicals that we use to make our food taste the way it’s supposed to taste, look the way we expect it to look, and generally survive the journey to our tables intact. Hosted by: Michael Aranda ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Justin Ove, John Szymakowski, Fatima Iqbal, Justin Lentz, David Campos, and Chris Peters. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow Or help support us by becoming our patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow Sources: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1989-03-02/entertainment/8903230478_1_breakfast-cereals-convenience-foods-bht http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/FoodAdditivesIngredients/ucm094211.htm http://www.webmd.com/diet/the-truth-about-seven-common-food-additives http://cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm#banned_additives http://cspinet.org/new/201405071.html http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/indepth.food/additives/table.html http://web.archive.org/web/20060818132159/http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/colorfac.html http://www.livestrong.com/article/288335-the-most-common-food-preservatives/ http://www.britannica.com/science/emulsifier http://www.webmd.com/diet/the-truth-about-seven-common-food-additives http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2957945/ red dye #5 http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6093299#section=Top http://www.tfl.com/web/files/eubanazodyes.pdf http://www.livescience.com/35905-red-dye-no-2-truth.html http://www.ddwcolor.com/colorant/carotenoids/ xanthan gum http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=172.695 http://www.fda.gov/ucm/groups/fdagov-public/@fdagov-foods-gen/documents/document/ucm261607.pdf http://www.ift.org/knowledge-center/read-ift-publications/science-reports/scientific-status-summaries/fat-replacers.aspx http://www.foodadditivesworld.com/stabilisers.html carrageenan http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4765e/y4765e0a.htm citric acid http://kitchenscience.sci-toys.com/oxidation http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/10-ingredients-fast-food1.htm http://pubs.acs.org/cen/science/8045/8045sci2.html http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4009 http://www.drugs.com/inactive/citric-acid-anhydrous-397.html http://foodreference.about.com/od/Food-Additives/a/What-Is-Citric-Acid.htm http://www.fgsc.net/asilomar/citric.html sodium benzoate http://www.fao.org/docrep/V5030e/V5030E0d.htm http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/ChemicalContaminants/ucm055815.htm#table1
Views: 759596 SciShow
How to choose a cleaning solution
 
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A general overview of cleaning solvents and techniques. Solvent selection and effectiveness: http://www.productionmachining.com/articles/selecting-solvents-for-precision-cleaning Dan Gelbart on coatings and surface cleaning: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x7onZGqrYyY https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kauri-butanol_value http://cool.conservation-us.org/coolaic/sg/bpg/annual/v03/bp03-04.html
Views: 136776 Applied Science
Mexico's energy reform: Foundation, implementation, and challenges ahead
 
01:10:27
In a February talk hosted by the MIT Energy Initiative, Lourdes Melgar, the Robert Wilhelm Fellow at the Center of International Studies at MIT, outlined the historic energy reform Mexico approved at the constitutional level in December 2013 and provided an update on the implementation and challenges ahead. This reform, referred to as an energy revolution, aims at increasing Mexico’s energy security while mitigating climate change. It entails the creation of energy markets in the hydrocarbons and power sectors and the participation of private investors in all the activities of the energy sector. The implementation is moving ahead with bidding processes in the upstream, as well as in the power sector. Melgar also addressed the challenges Mexico faces as it consolidates its new energy model. This talk was presented on February 14, 2017. About the speaker: Lourdes Melgar is currently the Robert Wilhelm Fellow at the Center of International Studies at MIT. From December 2012 to February 2014, she served as Mexico’s under-secretary of electricity and from February 2014 to July 2016, she was Mexico’s deputy secretary of energy for hydrocarbons. She was a key player in the design and implementation of Mexico’s energy reform. She is a national researcher of the Mexican Science and Technology Council (CONACYT). ___ The MIT Energy Initiative is MIT’s hub for energy research, education, and outreach. Learn more at http://energy.mit.edu.
Views: 1545 MIT Energy Initiative
Oil refining
 
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A short video clip illustrating the process of oil refining that can be viewed online by students or downloaded for showing in class
Biomass to liquid | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_to_liquid 00:00:17 1 Main processes 00:00:48 1.1 Fischer–Tropsch process 00:01:34 1.2 Flash pyrolysis 00:01:51 1.3 Catalytic fast pyrolysis 00:02:36 1.4 AFEX treatment 00:03:53 1.5 Catalytic depolymerization 00:04:14 1.6 Regional Biomass Processing Center 00:05:01 2 Potential energy grasses 00:05:23 2.1 Switchgrass 00:05:49 2.2 iSorghum/i 00:06:24 2.3 iMiscanthus/i 00:07:05 3 Grassoline 00:07:29 4 Cost of change Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7716289590704032 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a thermochemical route. Such a fuel has been called grassoline.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
Petroleum | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:03:57
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Petroleum 00:01:31 1 Etymology 00:02:27 2 History 00:02:36 2.1 Early history 00:04:43 2.2 Modern history 00:11:18 3 Composition 00:16:41 4 Chemistry 00:21:08 5 Empirical equations for thermal properties 00:21:19 5.1 Heat of combustion 00:22:13 5.2 Thermal conductivity 00:23:22 5.3 Specific heat 00:25:08 5.4 Latent heat of vaporization 00:26:48 6 Formation 00:27:59 6.1 Anaerobic decay or 1. phase of diagenesis 00:29:11 6.2 Kerogen formation or 2. phase of diagenesis 00:30:27 6.3 Kerogen to fossil fuels or catagenesis 00:32:57 6.4 Abiogenic petroleum 00:33:45 7 Reservoirs 00:36:51 7.1 Unconventional oil reservoirs 00:38:22 8 Classification 00:41:08 9 Petroleum industry 00:43:04 9.1 Shipping 00:43:50 10 Price 00:44:27 11 Uses 00:44:58 11.1 Fuels 00:45:19 11.2 Other derivatives 00:46:19 11.3 Agriculture 00:46:39 12 Petroleum by country 00:46:49 12.1 Consumption statistics 00:46:58 12.2 Consumption 00:47:41 12.3 Production 00:47:58 12.4 Export 00:48:53 12.5 Import 00:49:21 12.6 Oil imports to the United States by country 2010 00:49:32 12.7 Non-producing consumers 00:49:50 13 Environmental effects 00:50:26 13.1 Ocean acidification 00:50:53 13.2 Global warming 00:51:45 13.3 Extraction 00:52:17 13.4 Oil spills 00:54:13 13.5 Tarballs 00:55:10 13.6 Whales 00:55:33 14 Alternatives to petroleum 00:56:07 14.1 Alternatives to petroleum-based vehicle fuels 00:56:50 14.2 Alternatives to using oil in industry 00:57:07 14.3 Alternatives to burning petroleum for electricity 00:57:39 15 Future of petroleum production 01:00:07 15.1 Peak oil 01:02:33 15.2 Unconventional production 01:03:44 16 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Petroleum () is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column. It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare). Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterisation (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures) have been completed. It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day.
Views: 12 wikipedia tts
History of the petroleum industry in Canada (natural gas) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_petroleum_industry_in_Canada_(natural_gas) 00:02:00 1 Early times 00:03:40 2 Canada's first sweetening plant 00:05:32 3 Gas conservation after Leduc 00:08:59 4 Schemata of a gas plant 00:09:08 5 Selling the products 00:09:32 5.1 Natural gas liquids 00:10:39 5.2 Sulphur 00:12:26 5.3 Gas sausages 00:15:35 6 Exploration and development 00:16:01 6.1 Lodgepole blowout 00:18:22 6.2 Caroline 00:20:45 7 Supply, demand and price 00:21:44 7.1 Unconventional gas 00:24:53 8 Complacency 00:26:40 9 Metric conversions 00:27:24 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9745512364946937 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Natural gas has been used almost as long as crude oil in Canada, but its commercial development was not as rapid. This is because of special properties of this energy commodity: it is a gas, and it frequently contains impurities. The technical challenges involved to first process and then pipe it to market are therefore considerable. Furthermore, the costs of pipeline building make the whole enterprise capital intensive, requiring both money and engineering expertise, and large enough markets to make the business profitable. Until it became commercially viable, natural gas was often a nuisance. Dangerous to handle and hard to get to market, early oilmen despised it as a poor relation to its rich cousin crude oil. Although early processing procedures were able to remove water, in the 19th century discoveries were only developed if consumers could use the gas just as it came out of the ground. If the gas required further processing or needed to be piped a long distance to market, the producer shut in the well. Flares got rid of gas coming from oil wells. Natural gas processing changes the commodity in two critical ways. First, it extracts valuable by-products; second, it renders natural gas fit to be transported to a point for commercial sale and consumption. Through the use of evolving technology, the gas processing industry of each era extracts higher percentages of a wider range of hydrocarbons and other commercial by-products than its predecessors. It also removes ever-higher percentages of dangerous and other unwanted impurities. Steady growth has made natural gas a major industry, with 180 cubic kilometres of gas flowing from Canadian fields to market, every year. Part of a series on Canada's petroleum industry, this entry focuses on the second of these two functions of gas processing - removing impurities from the gas stream - rather than recovering natural gas liquids, described elsewhere. Of course, most large plants perform both functions, and plants have no other ultimate purpose than to quickly, safely and profitably turn raw gas into products to be safely shipped (mostly by pipeline) to market. The discussion covers gas processing as an engineering feat, critical developments in exploration and development and the fundamentals of the marketplace.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
Seismic Soundoff #14: Data analytics and machine learning - Baishali Roy
 
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Dr. Baishali Roy, special section coordinator for the March 2017 issue of The Leading Edge, joins Andrew Geary to discuss data analytics and machine learning in geophysics. Dr. Roy has worked at ConocoPhillips since 2000. She currently serves on the TLE Editorial Board. Subscribers can read the full articles in the SEG Digital Library at library.seg.org and for those currently not subscribed, abstracts are always free. Learn more at http://seg.org/podcast.
Views: 377 SEG
Petrochemicals | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrochemical 00:06:16 1 History 00:08:19 2 Olefins 00:12:30 3 Aromatics 00:16:55 4 List of petrochemicals 00:17:05 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8164306656512688 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn, palm fruit or sugar cane. The two most common petrochemical classes are olefins (including ethylene and propylene) and aromatics (including benzene, toluene and xylene isomers). Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents, detergents, and adhesives. Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, resins, fibers, elastomers, lubricants, and gels.Global ethylene and propylene production are about 115 million tonnes and 70 million tonnes per annum, respectively. Aromatics production is approximately 70 million tonnes. The largest petrochemical industries are located in the USA and Western Europe; however, major growth in new production capacity is in the Middle East and Asia. There is substantial inter-regional petrochemical trade. Primary petrochemicals are divided into three groups depending on their chemical structure: Olefins includes Ethene, Propene, Butenes and butadiene. Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industrial chemicals and plastics products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber. Aromatics includes Benzene, toluene and xylenes, as a whole referred to as BTX and primarily obtained from petroleum refineries by extraction from the reformate produced in catalytic reformers using Naphtha obtained from petroleum refineries. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making polyurethanes. Manufacturers use xylenes to produce plastics and synthetic fibers. Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate. Steam crackers are not to be confused with steam reforming plants used to produce hydrogen and ammonia. Methane, ethane, propane and butanes obtained primarily from natural gas processing plants. Methanol and formaldehyde.In 2007, the amounts of ethylene and propylene produced in steam crackers were about 115 Mt (megatonnes) and 70 Mt, respectively. The output ethylene capacity of large steam crackers ranged up to as much as 1.0 – 1.5 Mt per year. The adjacent diagram schematically depicts the major hydrocarbon sources used in producing petrochemicals are. Like commodity chemicals, petrochemicals are made on a very large scale. Petrochemical manufacturing units differ from commodity chemical plants in that they often produce a number of related products. Compare this with specialty chemical and fine chemical manufacture where products are made in discrete batch processes. Petrochemicals are predominantly made in a few manufacturing locations around the world, for example in Jubail & Yanbu Industrial Cities in Saudi Arabia, Texas & Louisiana in the US, in Teesside in the Northeast of England in the United Kingdom, in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, and in Jamnagar & Dahej in Gujarat, India. Not all of the petrochemical or commodity chemical materials produced by the chemical industry are made in one single location but groups of related materials are often ...
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Douglas Complex | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_Complex 00:02:38 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9217622077984644 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Douglas Complex is a 54-metre (177 ft) high system of three linked platforms in the Irish Sea, 24 kilometres (15 mi) off the North Wales coast. The Douglas oil field was discovered in 1990, and production commenced in 1996. Now operated by Eni, the complex consists of the wellhead platform, which drills into the seabed, a processing platform, which separates oil, gas and water, and thirdly an accommodation platform, which is composed of living quarters for the crew. This accommodation module was formerly the Morecambe Flame jack-up drilling rig. The Douglas Complex is also the control hub for other platforms in the area, and provides power for all platforms. It also offers recreational, catering and medical facilities for up to 80 personnel. Oil from the Lennox, Hamilton, and Hamilton North unmanned satellite platforms is received and blended at the complex.Fluids from the Lennox installation via the gas pipeline are treated on the Douglas installation in the 3-phase (oil, gas and produced water) Lennox Production Separator. Following separation, gas flows to the Offgas Compressor suction manifold. Oil is directed to the Oil Stripper where the liquid is stripped of sour gas using a counter-current flow of stripping gas. Produced water from the separator is directed to the Produced Water Hydrocyclones where hydrocarbon liquids are removed prior to overboard disposal. Well fluids from the Douglas Wellhead tower are treated in the 3-phase Douglas Production Separator. Gas flows to the Offgas Compressor suction manifold and hydrocarbon liquids are directed to the Oil Stripper, and water to hydrocyclones as described above. Oil from the Oil Stripper is pumped by the Oil Transfer Pumps via Fiscal metering to the Main Oil Transfer Pumps to tanker loading. Gas from the Oil Stripper is compressed and sent to the Offgas Compressor.Gas is sent through a pipeline 33.5-kilometre (20.8 mi) long to a processing plant at Point of Ayr, in Flintshire, North Wales. After processing, almost the entire output is sold to E.ON to fire the combined cycle gas turbine power station at Connah's Quay, on Deeside, in Flintshire. Oil produced in Liverpool Bay is sent through another pipeline, 17 km long, to the Offshore Storage Installation, a permanently anchored barge which acts as a floating oil terminal, capable of holding 870 thousand barrels (~1.2×10^5 t) of oil. From the floating terminal oil is transferred to tankers approximately once every month.
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Oil refinery | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_refinery 00:02:29 1 History 00:09:12 1.1 Oil refining in the United States 00:12:02 2 Operation 00:15:49 3 Major products 00:21:29 4 Chemical processes found in a refinery 00:27:22 5 Flow diagram of typical refinery 00:28:29 6 The crude oil distillation unit 00:30:39 7 Location of petroleum refineries 00:32:11 8 Safety and environment 00:34:45 9 Worker health 00:34:54 9.1 Background 00:36:48 9.2 Chemical exposures 00:40:49 9.2.1 Potential Chemical Exposure by Process 00:41:00 9.3 Physical hazards 00:43:29 9.4 Hazard controls 00:45:54 9.5 Regulations 00:47:28 10 Corrosion 00:51:16 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9161076949640137 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils. Petrochemicals feed stock like ethylene and propylene can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil without the need of using refined products of crude oil such as naphtha.Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units, such as distillation columns. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology of, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products. Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. An oil refinery is considered an essential part of the downstream side of the petroleum industry. Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as 800,000 to 900,000 barrels (127,000 to 143,000 cubic meters) of crude oil per day. According to the Oil and Gas Journal in the world a total of 636 refineries were operated on the 31 December 2014 for a total capacity of 87.75 million barrels (13,951,000 m3). Jamnagar Refinery is the largest oil refinery, since 25 December 2008, with a processing capacity of 1.24 million barrels (197,000 m3). Located in Gujarat, India, it is owned by Reliance Industries.
Views: 35 wikipedia tts
What Is In Petrol?
 
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The primary ingredient in petrol is processed crude oil, but some of its other chief constituents are benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene 24 sep 2016 conventional diesel both produced from mineral the precise refining methods vary. How much ethanol is in gasoline, and how does it affect fuel eia. By their failure to disclose all the facts, we have 29 mar 2017 u. Googleusercontent search. Petroleum wikipedia petroleum wikipedia en. Petrol is normally produced by refineries the difference between petrol and gasoline only one of naming. It was originally discarded as a byproduct of synonyms for petrol at thesaurus with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. It consists of hydrocarbons various molecular weights and other organic compounds. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation petroleum, enhanced with a variety additives petrol, which is also known as gasoline, carbon based fuel mixture that composed over 150 individual chemicals. Petrol sniffing gasoline alcoholrehab. Petroleum is a complex mixture of organic liquids called crude oil and natural gas, which occurs naturally in the ground was 15 jan 2010 narrow boiling range bp 100 will ensure good preparation because heavier hydrocarbons normal petrol are avoided. Petrol sniffing health & wellbeing abc. Petroleum supply and disposition articles on ethanol issues methods for estimating the share of in motor gasoline petroleum products are produced from processing crude oil other liquids at refineries, extraction liquid hydrocarbons natural 31 jan 2017 petrol, or gasoline, technical terms is called spirit (ms), automotive. Though both have similar base product 15 jan 2013 petroleum, or crude oil, is a fossil fuel and non renewable source of energy 8 oct although, at national level, it estimated that less than 1 per cent indigenous young people regularly sniff petrol, in some small hydrocarbons petrol depress the central nervous system an this can create state to alcohol intoxication. Petroleum consists of hydrocarbon chains all sorts different oil companies convinced us that unleaded petrol is safer for our health and environment than leaded. They are the same substances with largely standards. Petroleum wikipediawhat are the ingredients of petrol? Differences between diesel and petrol what is composition petroleum. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation. Historically, 'gasoline' in british background. Wikipedia wiki petroleum url? Q webcache. Most people presume petroleum to be similar gasoline or petrol, simply a less pure form, which needs refined. The lies of unleaded petrol whale. Petroleum consists of hydrocarbon chains all sorts different the lies unleaded petrol whale. How gasoline is made manufacture, making, used, parts, industry petrol synonyms, antonyms refining of petroleum australian institute. Gasoline is a volatile, flammable liquid obtained from the refinement of petroleum, or
Cracking (chemistry) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cracking_(chemistry) 00:01:15 1 History and patents 00:04:25 2 Cracking methodologies 00:04:35 2.1 Thermal methods 00:05:38 2.1.1 Thermal cracking 00:08:01 2.1.2 Steam cracking 00:11:16 2.1.2.1 Process details 00:15:08 2.2 Catalytic methods 00:16:10 2.2.1 Fluid Catalytic cracking 00:19:56 2.2.2 Hydrocracking 00:22:25 3 Fundamentals 00:23:11 4 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.820084526477724 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors. The rate of cracking and the end products are strongly dependent on the temperature and presence of catalysts. Cracking is the breakdown of a large alkane into smaller, more useful alkenes. Simply put, hydrocarbon cracking is the process of breaking a long-chain of hydrocarbons into short ones. This process might require high temperatures and high pressure.More loosely, outside the field of petroleum chemistry, the term "cracking" is used to describe any type of splitting of molecules under the influence of heat, catalysts and solvents, such as in processes of destructive distillation or pyrolysis. Fluid catalytic cracking produces a high yield of petrol and LPG, while hydrocracking is a major source of jet fuel, Diesel fuel, naphtha, and again yields LPG.
Views: 16 wikipedia tts
TITANIC Nuclear SUBMARINE to Explore Titan's Biggest Methane Sea
 
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NASA boffins have come up with a design for a submarine they reckon could one day be used to explore the liquefied hydrocarbon seas of Saturn's mysterious freezing moon, Titan - the only bodies of surface liquid confirmed to exist off Earth. The submarine – to be revealed at the 46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March but already described in this document (PDF) http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2015/pdf/1259.pdf is proposed as a way to explore Kraken Mare, a body of liquid spotted by the Cassini probe in 2007 and since identified as the largest sea or lake in Titan's north. Small waves have been observed on the lake, which is thought to be up to 160 metres deep. Read more here: NASA unveils possible submarine design for exploring liquid methane seas on Titan http://phys.org/news/2015-02-nasa-unveils-submarine-exploring-liquid.html TITANIC: Nuclear SUBMARINE cruising 'Sea of KRAKENS' may be FOUND ON icy MOON http://www.theregister.co.uk/2015/02/13/nasa_floats_space_submarine_design_for_titan_mission/ 46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2015) http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2015/pdf/1259.pdf Robot Submarine To Explore Saturn Moon Titan's Mysterious Methane Sea? Why Not, Says NASA (Video) http://www.techtimes.com/articles/32873/20150214/robot-submarine-explore-saturn-moon-titan-mysterious-methane-sea-why.htm Titan (moon) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titan_%28moon%29 About Saturn & Its Moons http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/index.cfm?SciencePageID=73 Titan - Titan Virtual Tour http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/flash/Titan/index.html Music credit: Transformers The Movie - Piano Suite https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xx86Y0cTrzc YouTube channel: Mark Fowler https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCWTtFf8wpLlCZHenYUGZKw
Views: 237 Carol Bourg
Kazakhstan | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:49:45
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Kazakhstan Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, translit. Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] ( listen); Russian: Казахстан, IPA: [kəzɐxˈstan]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, translit. Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi). It is a transcontinental country largely located in Asia; the most western parts are located in Europe. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per sq mi). The capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from Almaty, the country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The current President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has been leader of the country since then, and is characterised as authoritarian, with a government history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion", and other human rights organisations regularly describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor. Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs (63% of the population), Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan officially allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed. The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, and TURKSOY.
Views: 122 wikipedia tts
Thorium.
 
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http://ThoriumRemix.com/ Thorium is an abundant material which can be transformed into massive quantities of energy. To do so efficiently requires a very different nuclear reactor than the kind we use today- Not one that uses solid fuel rods, but a reactor in which the fuel is kept in a liquid state. Not one that uses pressurized water as a coolant, but a reactor that uses chemically stable molten salts. Such a reactor is called a "Molten Salt Reactor". Many different configurations are possible. Some of these configurations can harness Thorium very efficiently. This video explores the attributes of Molten Salt Reactors. Why are they compelling? And why do many people (including myself) see them as the only economical way of fully harnessing ALL our nuclear fuels... including Thorium. This video has been under development since 2012. I hope it conveys to you why I personally find Molten Salt Reactors so compelling, as do the many volunteers and supporters who helped create it. Much of the footage was shot by volunteers. All music was created by: http://kilowattsmusic.com To support this project, please visit: https://patreon.com/thorium Entities pursuing Molten Salt Reactors are... Flibe Energy - http://flibe-energy.com/ Terrestrial Energy - http://terrestrialenergy.com/ Moltex Energy - http://www.moltexenergy.com/ ThorCon Power - http://thorconpower.com/ Transatomic - http://www.transatomicpower.com/ Seaborg - http://seaborg.co/ Copenhagen Atomics - http://www.copenhagenatomics.com/ TerraPower - http://terrapower.com/ Bhabha Atomic Research Centre - http://www.barc.gov.in/ Chinese Academy of Sciences - http://english.cas.cn/ Regular Thorium conferences are organized by: http://thoriumenergyalliance.com/ http://thoriumenergyworld.com/ Table of Contents 0:00:00 Space 0:17:29 Constraints 0:28:22 Coolants 0:40:15 MSRE 0:48:54 Earth 0:59:46 Thorium 1:22:03 LFTR 1:36:13 Revolution 1:44:58 Forward 1:58:11 ROEI 2:05:41 Beginning 2:08:36 History 2:38:59 Dowtherm 2:47:57 Salt 2:51:44 Pebbles 3:06:07 India 3:18:44 Caldicott 3:35:55 Fission 3:56:22 Spectrum 4:04:25 Chemistry 4:12:51 Turbine 4:22:27 Waste 4:40:15 Decommission 4:54:39 Candlelight 5:13:06 Facts 5:26:08 Future 5:55:39 Pitches 5:56:17 Terrestrial 6:08:33 ThorCon 6:11:45 Flibe 6:20:51 End 6:25:53 Credits Some of this footage is remixed from non-MSR related sources, to help explain the importance of energy for both space exploration and everyday life here on Earth. Most prominently... Pandora's Promise - https://youtu.be/bDw3ET3zqxk Dr. Neil DeGrasse Tyson - https://youtu.be/Pun76NZMjCk Dr. Robert Zubrin - https://youtu.be/EKQSijn9FBs Mars Underground - https://youtu.be/tcTZvNLL0-w Andy Weir & Adam Savage - https://youtu.be/5SemyzKgaUU Periodic Table Videos - https://youtube.com/channel/UCtESv1e7ntJaLJYKIO1FoYw
Views: 139530 gordonmcdowell
Katie Inderbitzen, Geochemist: JASON STEM Career Q&A (October 2013)
 
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www.jason.org/live On October 31, 2013 JASON Learning connected with geochemist (and former JASON Student Argonaut!) Dr. Katie Inderbitzen to learn about her STEM career. This event was a continuation of her September 19, 2013 event that was interrupted due to technical issues. That portion of the program can be viewed here: http://youtu.be/_qRcEZ-IUnE JASON Learning is a non-profit organization that connects students to real science and exploration to inspire and motivate them to study and pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields. We embed the exciting STEM professionals and cutting-edge research of our partners into award-winning online and print core curricula, adaptable resources, live interactive events and professional development. In addition to our standards-aligned educational resources such as videos, articles with read-to-me functionality, games, and hands-on labs; JASON also offers a wealth of teacher resources including online lesson plans, assessments, classroom management and more.
Views: 134 JASON Learning
Wal-Mart Looks Online For Chinese Growth
 
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As Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. courts investors for a highly anticipated public offering next month in the U.S., Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is busy trying to win over online shoppers in the Chinese e-commerce company's backyard. Wal-Mart's online arm in China—called Yihaodian, meaning No. 1 Store—has recently increased the number of products sold on its site, built up its supply chain and streamlined its mobile site in a push to boost sales. Wal-Mart owns a 54% stake in Yihaodian. http://online.wsj.com/articles/wal-mart-looks-online-for-chinese-growth-1409249529?mod=rss_Technology http://www.wochit.com
Views: 14 Wochit Business
Biofuels | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel 00:05:33 1 Generations 00:05:43 1.1 First-generation biofuels 00:06:28 1.2 Second-generation biofuels 00:08:42 1.3 Third-generation biofuels 00:10:43 1.4 Fourth-generation biofuels 00:11:23 2 Types 00:11:51 2.1 Biogas 00:13:03 2.2 Syngas 00:14:47 2.3 Ethanol 00:19:39 2.4 Other bioalcohols 00:21:42 2.5 Biodiesel 00:27:11 2.6 Green diesel 00:28:44 2.7 Straight vegetable oil 00:31:32 2.8 Bioethers 00:33:41 2.9 Solid biomass fuels 00:37:46 3 By region 00:40:14 4 Air pollution 00:42:08 5 Debates regarding the production and use of biofuel 00:44:35 5.1 Banning of first-generation biofuels 00:45:06 5.2 Sustainable biofuels 00:47:24 5.3 Greenhouse gas emissions 00:51:06 5.4 Water Use 00:51:25 5.5 Forests and Carbon Sequestration 00:52:05 6 Current research 00:54:00 6.1 Ethanol biofuels (bioethanol) 00:57:51 6.2 Jatropha 00:59:55 6.3 Fungi 01:01:25 6.4 Animal gut bacteria Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7367356009069909 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. If the source biomatter can regrow quickly, the resulting fuel is said to be a form of renewable energy. Biofuels can be derived directly from plants (i.e. energy crops), or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Renewable biofuels generally involve contemporary carbon fixation, such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis. Other renewable biofuels are made through the use or conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy-containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can also be used directly for biofuels. Biofuels are in theory carbon-neutral because the carbon dioxide that is absorbed by the plants is equal to the carbon dioxide that is released when the fuel is burned. However, in practice, whether or not a biofuel is carbon-neutral also depends greatly on whether the land which is used to grow the biofuel (with 1st and 2nd generation biofuel) needed to be cleared of carbon-holding vegetation or not. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form (E100), but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the United States and in Brazil. Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by fermentation. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form (B100), but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. In 2010, worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons US), up 17% from 2009, and biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's fuels for road transport. Global ethanol fuel production reached 86 billion liters (23 billion gallons US) in 2010, with the United States and Brazil as the world's top ...
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Nitrogen | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Nitrogen 00:03:20 1 History 00:07:12 2 Properties 00:07:21 2.1 Atomic 00:11:42 2.2 Isotopes 00:16:10 3 Chemistry and compounds 00:16:20 3.1 Allotropes 00:20:36 3.2 Dinitrogen complexes 00:23:35 3.3 Nitrides, azides, and nitrido complexes 00:27:51 3.4 Hydrides 00:31:36 3.5 Halides and oxohalides 00:35:11 3.6 Oxides 00:39:57 3.7 Oxoacids, oxoanions, and oxoacid salts 00:46:00 3.8 Organic nitrogen compounds 00:47:40 4 Occurrence 00:50:29 5 Production 00:51:59 6 Applications 00:52:08 6.1 Gas 00:54:37 6.2 Liquid 00:56:03 7 Safety 00:56:12 7.1 Gas 00:57:45 7.2 Liquid 00:59:25 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds. Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. The name comes from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties. It is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2. Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry. This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines, act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters.
Views: 28 wikipedia tts
Mod-01 Lec-34 HPLC
 
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Downstream Processing by Prof. Mukesh Doble, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 1204 nptelhrd
Carbon Dioxide as a supercritical solvent
 
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https://goo.gl/3nCSoQ We love the science of extraction. We hope you do to. Even if you decide to buy a system from a competitor, we all have a lot to learn when it comes to this high-growth industry. In the video above, Professor Bob expresses his childlike wonder at the almost magical properties of carbon dioxide as a supercritical solvent. His enthusiasm is infectious. Other nerdy efforts to watch for in the near future from us include: * A version of our density calculator (built into all our systems), for anyone to use, regardless of which company's extraction machine they run * A series of experiments on solubility with a phase monitor to collect updated data that extraction operators can use to better formulate runs * Original articles on our website and in industry publications to further the science of the field We're always ready and eager to start a conversation, so reach out any time!
Views: 8967 Jeff Diehl
Abiogenic petroleum origin | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abiogenic_petroleum_origin 00:01:24 1 Overview hypotheses 00:03:19 2 History 00:06:35 3 State of current research 00:07:24 4 Foundations of abiogenic hypotheses 00:08:55 5 Recent investigation of abiogenic hypotheses 00:11:38 6 Proposed mechanisms of abiogenic petroleum 00:11:50 6.1 Primordial deposits 00:12:58 6.2 Creation within the mantle 00:13:41 6.3 Hydrogen generation 00:15:33 6.4 Serpentinite mechanism 00:19:29 6.4.1 Serpentinite synthesis 00:29:09 6.5 Spinel polymerization mechanism 00:31:44 6.6 Carbonate decomposition 00:33:13 6.7 Evidence of abiogenic mechanisms 00:34:23 7 Biotic (microbial) hydrocarbons 00:35:42 7.1 Microbial biomarkers 00:36:18 7.1.1 Isotopic evidence 00:38:26 7.2 Biomarker chemicals 00:39:26 7.3 Trace metals 00:39:37 7.4 Reduced carbon 00:41:01 8 Empirical evidence 00:42:11 8.1 Lost City hydrothermal vent field 00:44:39 8.2 Siljan Ring crater 00:46:04 8.3 Bacterial mats 00:46:51 8.4 Example proposed abiogenic methane deposits 00:49:06 9 Geological arguments 00:49:32 9.1 Incidental arguments for abiogenic oil 00:51:39 9.2 Incidental arguments against abiogenic oil 00:51:50 10 Extraterrestrial argument 00:53:39 11 See also 00:56:14 12 References 00:57:23 13 Bibliography Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7621999147476884 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different hypotheses which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms. The two principal abiogenic petroleum hypotheses, proposing that all petroleum is abiogenic, the deep gas hypothesis of Thomas Gold and the deep abiotic petroleum hypothesis, have been scientifically reviewed and largely rejected.Earlier studies of mantle-derived rocks from many places have shown that hydrocarbons from the mantle region can be found widely around the globe. However, the content of such hydrocarbons in such rocks are extremely low and seem to lack accumulation in concentrations that would render them feasible for exploitation. Scientific consensus on the origin of oil and gas is that all natural oil and gas deposits on Earth are fossil fuels and are, therefore, biogenic. Globally significant amounts of abiotic oil in the crust can even be ruled out. Yet, abiogenesis of small quantities of oil and gas remains an area of ongoing research in limited, mostly just laboratory scale.
Views: 14 wikipedia tts
Vapor-compression refrigeration | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vapor-compression_refrigeration 00:01:07 1 Description of the vapor-compression refrigeration system 00:03:42 1.1 Refrigerants 00:06:28 2 Thermodynamic analysis of the system 00:08:53 3 Types of gas compressors 00:11:24 3.1 Reciprocating compressors 00:11:40 3.2 Rotary screw compressors 00:12:06 3.3 Centrifugal compressors 00:12:31 3.4 Scroll compressors 00:12:59 3.5 Others 00:13:08 4 Compressor lubrication 00:14:39 5 Control 00:15:49 6 Other features and facts of interest 00:18:01 7 Applications 00:18:51 8 Economic analysis 00:19:19 8.1 Advantages 00:19:28 8.2 Disadvantages 00:19:38 9 History 00:20:45 10 See also 00:22:14 11 References 00:25:09 12 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8829420399218733 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Vapor-compression refrigeration or vapor-compression refrigeration system (VCRS), in which the refrigerant undergoes phase changes, is one of the many refrigeration cycles and is the most widely used method for air-conditioning of buildings and automobiles. It is also used in domestic and commercial refrigerators, large-scale warehouses for chilled or frozen storage of foods and meats, refrigerated trucks and railroad cars, and a host of other commercial and industrial services. Oil refineries, petrochemical and chemical processing plants, and natural gas processing plants are among the many types of industrial plants that often utilize large vapor-compression refrigeration systems. Refrigeration may be defined as lowering the temperature of an enclosed space by removing heat from that space and transferring it elsewhere. A device that performs this function may also be called an air conditioner, refrigerator, air source heat pump, geothermal heat pump or chiller (heat pump).
Views: 6 wikipedia tts
Biohydrocarbon | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_to_liquid 00:00:14 1 Main processes 00:00:39 1.1 Fischer–Tropsch process 00:01:17 1.2 Flash pyrolysis 00:01:30 1.3 Catalytic fast pyrolysis 00:02:06 1.4 AFEX treatment 00:03:07 1.5 Catalytic depolymerization 00:03:25 1.6 Regional Biomass Processing Center 00:04:03 2 Potential energy grasses 00:04:22 2.1 Switchgrass 00:04:44 2.2 iSorghum/i 00:05:13 2.3 iMiscanthus/i 00:05:47 3 Grassoline 00:06:07 4 Cost of change Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9383453914672851 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a thermochemical route. Such a fuel has been called grassoline.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
Oil shale | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_shale 00:01:59 1 Geology 00:05:17 2 Resource 00:07:25 3 History 00:09:59 4 Industry 00:12:02 5 Extraction and processing 00:14:32 6 Applications and products 00:17:12 7 Economics 00:21:23 8 Environmental considerations 00:24:01 9 Extraterrestrial oil shale 00:24:30 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9674725048082944 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales). Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. Deposits of oil shale occur around the world, including major deposits in the United States. A 2016 estimate of global deposits set the total world resources of oil shale equivalent of 6.05 trillion barrels (962 billion cubic metres) of oil in place.Heating oil shale to a sufficiently high temperature causes the chemical process of pyrolysis to yield a vapor. Upon cooling the vapor, the liquid shale oil—an unconventional oil—is separated from combustible oil-shale gas (the term shale gas can also refer to gas occurring naturally in shales). Oil shale can also be burned directly in furnaces as a low-grade fuel for power generation and district heating or used as a raw material in chemical and construction-materials processing.Oil shale gains attention as a potential abundant source of oil whenever the price of crude oil rises. At the same time, oil-shale mining and processing raise a number of environmental concerns, such as land use, waste disposal, water use, waste-water management, greenhouse-gas emissions and air pollution. Estonia and China have well-established oil shale industries, and Brazil, Germany, and Russia also utilize oil shale.General composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix, bitumens, and kerogen. Oil shales differ from oil-bearing shales, shale deposits that contain petroleum (tight oil) that is sometimes produced from drilled wells. Examples of oil-bearing shales are the Bakken Formation, Pierre Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Eagle Ford Formation.
Views: 16 wikipedia tts
Graphene | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene 00:01:33 1 Definition 00:03:16 2 Structure 00:05:58 2.1 Stability 00:06:28 2.2 Analogs 00:07:18 3 Properties 00:07:50 3.1 Electronic 00:10:20 3.2 Optical 00:13:15 3.2.1 Saturable absorption 00:14:31 3.2.2 Nonlinear Kerr effect 00:15:25 3.2.3 Quantum dots 00:15:59 3.3 Thermal 00:16:07 3.3.1 Thermal conductivity 00:20:02 3.3.2 Melting point 00:20:36 3.4 Mechanical 00:23:42 3.4.1 Fracture toughness 00:24:26 3.5 Biological 00:25:37 4 Forms and nanostructures 00:28:23 5 Production 00:33:40 6 Chemistry 00:35:43 7 Potential applications 00:39:44 8 Health and safety 00:41:05 9 History Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Graphene is an allotrope (form) of carbon consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. It is a semimetal with small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material). It is the basic structural element of many other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the ultimate case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.Graphene has many uncommon properties. It is the strongest material ever tested, conducts heat and electricity efficiently, and is nearly transparent. Graphene shows a large and nonlinear diamagnetism, greater than that of graphite, and can be levitated by neodymium magnets. Scientists theorized about graphene for years. It had been produced unintentionally in small quantities for centuries through the use of pencils and other similar graphite applications. It was observed originally in electron microscopes in 1962, but it was studied only while supported on metal surfaces. The material was later rediscovered, isolated, and characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. Research was informed by existing theoretical descriptions of its composition, structure, and properties. This work resulted in the two winning the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene."
Views: 28 wikipedia tts
Microbial biodegradation | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbial_biodegradation 00:01:21 1 Aerobic biodegradation of pollutants 00:03:45 2 Anaerobic biodegradation of pollutants 00:07:26 3 Bioavailability, chemotaxis, and transport of pollutants 00:08:26 4 Oil biodegradation 00:09:41 5 Cholesterol biodegradation 00:10:54 6 Analysis of waste biotreatment 00:12:12 7 Metabolic engineering and biocatalytic applications 00:13:19 8 Fungal biodegradation 00:14:38 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Microbial biodegradation is the use of bioremediation and biotransformation methods to harness the naturally occurring ability of microbial xenobiotic metabolism to degrade, transform or accumulate environmental pollutants, including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds (such as pyridine or quinoline), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years, and recent major methodological breakthroughs have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms, providing new insights into biodegradative pathways and the ability of organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Biological processes play a major role in the removal of contaminants and take advantage of the catabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade or convert such compounds. In environmental microbiology, genome-based global studies are increasing the understanding of metabolic and regulatory networks, as well as providing new information on the evolution of degradation pathways and molecular adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions.
Views: 90 wikipedia tts
Chemical fuel | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel 00:01:20 1 History 00:03:09 2 Chemical 00:03:54 2.1 Solid fuel 00:05:21 2.2 Liquid fuels 00:07:40 2.3 Fuel gas 00:08:55 2.4 Biofuels 00:10:15 2.5 Fossil fuels 00:13:38 2.6 Energy 00:14:10 3 Nuclear 00:16:17 3.1 Fission 00:17:11 3.2 Fusion 00:19:01 4 World trade 00:19:19 5 Liquid fuels for transportation 00:20:06 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.81103217759978 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are also utilized. Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy (such as batteries and capacitors) or mechanical energy (such as flywheels, springs, compressed air, or water in a reservoir).
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Thorium: An energy solution - THORIUM REMIX 2011
 
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http://patreon.com/thorium Thorium is plentiful & can be used to generate energy without creating transuranic wastes. Thorium's capacity as nuclear fuel was discovered during WW II, but ignored because it was unsuitable for making bombs. A liquid-fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) is the optimal approach for harvesting energy from Thorium, and has the potential to solve today's energy/climate crisis. LFTR is a type of Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (Th-MSR). This video summarizes over 6 hours worth of thorium talks given by Kirk Sorensen and other thorium technologists. THORIUM REMIX 2011 starts with a 5 minute TL;WL summary, to hold you over until you find your Ritalin. YouTube Closed Captioning is available in English, and many other languages. To learn more about the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor visit: http://energyfromthorium.com/ See http://THORIUMREMIX.com/ for full list of multimedia source material. Key YouTube video components: Kirk Sorensen @ TEDxYYC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2vzotsvvkw Kirk Sorensen @ Protospace - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVSmf_qmkbg Kirk Sorensen @ MRU - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3rL08J7fDA Kirk Sorensen @ TEAC3 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-uxvSVIGtU Kirk Sorensen @ Dr. Kiki Science Hour #84 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vEpnpyd-jbw After Fukushima: The Fear Factor - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OVQ0NvEcyqw Robert Hargraves @ TEAC3 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BOoBTufkEog Alexander Cannara @ TEAC3 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUVq81kBKyk James Kennedy @ TEAC3 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mrDeB86YpV4 Q: What is thorium and what makes it special? A: Thorium is a naturally-occuring mineral that holds large amounts of releasable nuclear energy, similar to uranium. This nuclear energy can be released in a special nuclear reactor designed to use thorium. Thorium is special because it is easier to extract this energy completely than uranium due to some of the chemical and nuclear properties of thorium. Q: What is a liquid-fluoride reactor? A: A liquid-fluoride nuclear reactor is different than conventional nuclear reactors that use solid fuel elements. A liquid-fluoride reactor uses a solution of several fluoride salts, typically lithium fluoride, beryllium fluoride, and uranium tetrafluoride, as its basic nuclear fuel. The fluoride salts have a number of advantages over solid fuels. They are impervious to radiation damage, they can be chemically processed in the form that they are in, and they have a high capacity to hold thermal energy (heat). Additional nuclear fuel can be added or withdrawn from the salt solution during normal operation. Q: Are the salts safe? A: Very safe. Unlike other coolants considered for high-performance reactors (like liquid sodium) the salts will not react dangerously with air or water. This is because they are already in their most stable chemical form. Their properties do not change even under intense radiation, unlike all solid forms of nuclear fuel. Q: What is nuclear waste and how does a liquid-fluoride reactor address this issue? A: So-called "nuclear waste" or spent-nuclear fuel is produced in conventional (solid-core) nuclear reactors because they are unable to extract all of the nuclear energy from their fuel before they have to shutdown. LFTR addresses this issue by using a form of nuclear fuel (liquid-fluoride salts of thorium) that allow complete extraction of nuclear energy from the fuel. "Fluid Fuel Reactors", James A. Lane, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1958. http://moltensalt.org/references/static/downloads/pdf/
Views: 706198 gordonmcdowell
BP | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BP 00:05:05 1 History 00:05:14 1.1 1909 to 1954 00:13:32 1.2 1954 to 1979 00:19:04 1.3 1979 to 1997 00:23:31 1.4 1998 to 2009 00:28:33 1.5 2010 to present 00:34:46 2 Operations 00:35:23 2.1 Operations by location 00:35:33 2.1.1 United Kingdom 00:37:19 2.1.2 United States 00:42:29 2.1.3 Other locations 00:48:28 2.2 Exploration and production 00:50:17 2.3 Refining and marketing 00:54:20 2.4 Alternative and low carbon energy 00:58:26 3 Corporate affairs 00:58:53 3.1 Stock 01:02:37 3.2 Branding and public relations 01:07:10 3.3 LGBTQ recognition 01:09:05 4 Environmental record 01:09:15 4.1 Indigenous rights 01:09:36 4.2 Position on global warming 01:10:52 4.3 Hazardous substance dumping 1993–1995 01:12:26 4.4 Air pollution violations 01:15:01 4.5 Colombian farmland damages claim 01:16:48 4.6 Canadian oil sands 01:18:05 5 Violations and accidents 01:22:48 5.1 1965 Sea Gem offshore oil rig disaster 01:23:30 5.2 Texas City Refinery explosion and leaks 01:24:16 5.2.1 2005 explosion 01:27:38 5.2.2 2007 toxic substance release 01:28:38 5.2.3 2010 chemical leak 01:31:00 5.3 Prudhoe Bay 01:36:20 5.4 2008 Caspian Sea gas leak 01:37:43 5.5 California storage tanks 01:38:52 5.6 iDeepwater Horizon/i explosion and oil spill 01:41:06 5.6.1 Environmental impact 01:44:30 5.6.2 Effects on human health 01:47:30 5.6.3 Civil and criminal suits 01:49:53 5.6.4 Claims settlement 01:50:58 6 Political influence 01:51:08 6.1 Lobbying for Libyan prisoner transfer release 01:52:02 6.2 Political contributions and lobbying 01:53:47 7 Market manipulation investigations and sanctions 01:57:58 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8156613915449422 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= BP p.l.c. (formerly The British Petroleum Company plc and BP Amoco plc) is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. It is one of the world's seven oil and gas "supermajors", whose performance in 2012 made it the world's sixth-largest oil and gas company, the sixth-largest energy company by market capitalization and the company with the world's 12th-largest revenue (turnover). It is a vertically integrated company operating in all areas of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining, distribution and marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading. It also has renewable energy interests in biofuels and wind power. As of 31 December 2017, BP had operations in 70 countries worldwide, produced around 3.6 million barrels per day (570,000 m3/d) of oil equivalent, and had total proved reserves of 18.441 billion barrels (2.9319×109 m3) of oil equivalent. The company has around 18,300 service stations worldwide. Its largest division is BP America in the United States. In Russia, BP owns a 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the world's largest publicly traded oil and gas company by hydrocarbon reserves and production. BP has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has secondary listings on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. BP's origins date back to the founding of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1908, established as a subsidiary of Burmah Oil Company to exploit oil discoveries in Iran. In 1935, it became the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and in 1954 British Petroleum. In 1959, the company expanded beyond the Middle East to Alaska and it was one of the first companies to strike oil in the North Sea. British Petroleum acquired majority control of Standard Oil of Ohio in 1978. Formerly majority state-owned, the British government privatised the company in stages between 1979 and 1987. British Petroleum merged with Amoco in 1998, becoming BP Amoco plc, and acquired ARCO and Burmah Castrol in 2000, becoming BP plc in 2001. From 2003 to 2013, BP was a partner in the TNK-BP joint venture in Russ ...
Views: 69 wikipedia tts
Heavy Ion Fusion
 
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Google Tech Talk November 11th, 2010 Presented by Dr. Charles Helsley. Abstract: The limited supply and worldwide environmental effects of carbon-based fuels demand that a different source of energy be identified and tapped. This analysis applies to synthetic bio fuels as well as fossil fuels. The obvious candidates to supplant carbon-based fuels are solar conversion, wind generation, hydraulic generation, geothermal extraction, fission, and fusion. When scaled to the size necessary to satisfy the energy demands of the world, all except fusion have severe unmitigated environmental impacts, induce geopolitical instability, or exhibit very limited availability, reliability, and sustainability. Most technologies suffer from more than one of these drawbacks. The fusion of Deuterium and Tritium ("DT") to form Helium and a neutron is a well-known reaction that yields prodigious amounts of energy. Though sufficient fuel is available in seawater to sustain the global energy demand for millennia, we still need an engine capable of running the reaction. As of 2009, the search for such an engine has been going on for 6 decades and common wisdom says it is still 5 decades away. The problem is that the search has been concentrated on the 1 GW regime (the size of a normal large power plant). HIF is that engine now. What is not generally known is that a safe practical way to harness the isotope's of Hydrogen reaction was developed in the 1970's but abandoned because it was only economically viable at a very large scale. The process is known as High Energy Heavy Ion Fusion. Such a fusion power plant would produce about 100 GW of power rather than the 1 GW desired by the power industry. Three facilities would meet the total needs of California, allowing fission and fossil fuel generation to be cut back significantly Heavy Ion Fusion techology is more "ready to go" now than rocket technology was in 1961 when President Kennedy set the goal to go to the moon and back within the decade. The controlled ignition of DT provides a virtually unlimited source of energy. Fusion power can be on line in less than a decade. The energy produced by a single system is equivalent to a super giant oil field and will take about the same amount of time to come on line producing heat, electricity, hydrogen for synthetic fuel and water with a minimal carbon footprint. The life of HIF is thousands of years, while a giant oil field's life is only a few decades. Speaker Bio: Charles Helsley is a retired researcher at the University of Hawaii. He has lived in Hawaii for 32 years, was formerly the Director of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and was the Director of the University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program at the time of his retirement. He is an expert in energy matters, especially in oil and gas resources and is knowledgeable about the effects that the of burning carbon-based fuels has on the earths ocean and atmosphere. He has been involved in many fields of research, from paleomagnetism, to seismology, to marine geology and more recently in free electron laser research and in open ocean aquaculture research under the banner of the Hawaii Offshore Aquaculture Research Program (HOARP) of which he was the principal investigator. He has published more than 100 papers in scientific journals during his career and still publishes papers every few years. He holds BS and MS degrees in Geology from the California Institute of Technology and a PhD in Geology from Princeton University.
Views: 16921 GoogleTechTalks
Robert Hargraves: "THORIUM" | Talks at Google
 
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Dr. Robert Hargraves spoke at Google's office in Cambridge MA on May 21, 2014. His talk addressed world economic development, environmental sustainability, and energy production. The energy technology which may have the greatest potential and merits much more investment in the USA is Metal Salt Reactors, especially Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors. This technology has zero carbon footprint, very small environmental footprint overall, and is exceptionally safe and reliable. The USA was involved in it as recently at the 1970's, but our military industrial complex pushed MSR out of the picture because it is virtually unweaponizable. China is quietly pouring $100 million per year into it.
Views: 19795 Talks at Google
History of the petroleum industry in Canada | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_petroleum_industry_in_Canada 00:02:25 1 Early origins 00:04:02 1.1 North American first 00:08:53 1.2 Canadian drillers 00:10:41 1.3 Eastern natural gas 00:13:20 2 Westward move 00:17:57 2.1 Turner Valley 00:23:20 2.2 Waste and conservation 00:31:02 2.3 Small discoveries elsewhere 00:32:19 3 Leduc 00:36:52 3.1 Geological diversity 00:41:35 4 Foreign Interest 00:42:05 5 Pipeline networks 00:44:34 5.1 Crude oil arteries 00:48:39 5.2 Gas pipelines and politics 00:53:26 5.3 Construction 01:01:24 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8368884350066483 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Canadian petroleum industry arose in parallel with that of the United States. Because of Canada's unique geography, geology, resources and patterns of settlement, however, it developed in different ways. The evolution of the petroleum sector has been a key factor in the history of Canada, and helps illustrate how the country became quite distinct from her neighbour to the south. Although the conventional oil and gas industry in western Canada is mature, the country's Arctic and offshore petroleum resources are mostly in early stages of exploration and development. Canada became a natural gas-producing giant in the late 1950s and is second, after Russia, in exports; the country also is home to the world's largest natural gas liquids extraction facilities. The industry started constructing its vast pipeline networks in the 1950s, thus beginning to develop domestic and international markets in a big way. Despite billions of dollars of investment, its bitumen—especially within the Athabasca oil sands—is still only a partially exploited resource. By 2025 this and other unconventional oil resources—the northern and offshore frontiers and heavy crude oil resources in the West—could place Canada in the top ranks among the world's oil producing and exporting nations. In a 2004 reassessment of global resources, the United States' EIA put Canadian oil reserves second; only Saudi Arabia has greater proved reserves. In 2014, the EIA now ranks Canada as third in World Oil Reserves at around 175 billion barrels, while Saudi Arabia is 2nd with around 268 billion barrels and Venezuela is ranked first with around 297 billion barrels of reserves.Many stories surrounding the petroleum industry's early development are colourful. The gathering oilpatch involved rugged adventurers, the occasional fraud, important innovations and, in the end, world-class success. Canadian petroleum production is now a vital part of the national economy and an essential element of world supply. Canada has become an energy giant.
Views: 16 wikipedia tts
Petrochemical | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrochemical 00:06:00 1 History 00:07:59 2 Olefins 00:12:05 3 Aromatics 00:16:25 4 List of petrochemicals 00:16:35 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7882127642289062 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn, palm fruit or sugar cane. The two most common petrochemical classes are olefins (including ethylene and propylene) and aromatics (including benzene, toluene and xylene isomers). Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents, detergents, and adhesives. Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, resins, fibers, elastomers, lubricants, and gels.Global ethylene and propylene production are about 115 million tonnes and 70 million tonnes per annum, respectively. Aromatics production is approximately 70 million tonnes. The largest petrochemical industries are located in the USA and Western Europe; however, major growth in new production capacity is in the Middle East and Asia. There is substantial inter-regional petrochemical trade. Primary petrochemicals are divided into three groups depending on their chemical structure: Olefins includes Ethene, Propene, Butenes and butadiene. Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industrial chemicals and plastics products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber. Aromatics includes Benzene, toluene and xylenes, as a whole referred to as BTX and primarily obtained from petroleum refineries by extraction from the reformate produced in catalytic reformers using Naphtha obtained from petroleum refineries. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making polyurethanes. Manufacturers use xylenes to produce plastics and synthetic fibers. Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate. Steam crackers are not to be confused with steam reforming plants used to produce hydrogen and ammonia. Methane, ethane, propane and butanes obtained primarily from natural gas processing plants. Methanol and formaldehyde.In 2007, the amounts of ethylene and propylene produced in steam crackers were about 115 Mt (megatonnes) and 70 Mt, respectively. The output ethylene capacity of large steam crackers ranged up to as much as 1.0 – 1.5 Mt per year. The adjacent diagram schematically depicts the major hydrocarbon sources used in producing petrochemicals are. Like commodity chemicals, petrochemicals are made on a very large scale. Petrochemical manufacturing units differ from commodity chemical plants in that they often produce a number of related products. Compare this with specialty chemical and fine chemical manufacture where products are made in discrete batch processes. Petrochemicals are predominantly made in a few manufacturing locations around the world, for example in Jubail & Yanbu Industrial Cities in Saudi Arabia, Texas & Louisiana in the US, in Teesside in the Northeast of England in the United Kingdom, in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, and in Jamnagar & Dahej in Gujarat, India. Not all of the petrochemical or commodity chemical materials produced by the chemical industry are made in one single location but groups of related materials are often ...
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Petroleum industry in Iran | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum_industry_in_Iran 00:01:59 1 History 00:02:08 1.1 The era of international control, 1901–1979 00:05:08 1.2 The era of nationalized oil, 1979–present 00:07:21 2 Oil production and reserves 00:11:40 3 Oil refining and consumption 00:14:11 4 Trade in oil and oil products 00:16:44 5 Natural gas 00:21:12 5.1 Major foreign projects 00:24:09 6 Petrochemicals 00:26:35 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9635839478626682 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= For the economic effects refer to Economy of Iran. Iran is an energy superpower and the Petroleum industry in Iran plays an important part in it. In 2004 Iran produced 5.1 percent of the world's total crude oil (3.9 million barrels (620,000 m3) per day), which generated revenues of US$25 billion to US$30 billion and was the country's primary source of foreign currency. At 2006 levels of production, oil proceeds represented about 18.7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). However, the importance of the hydrocarbon sector to Iran's economy has been far greater. The oil and gas industry has been the engine of economic growth, directly affecting public development projects, the government's annual budget, and most foreign exchange sources.In FY 2009, the sector accounted for 60 percent of total government revenues and 80 percent of the total annual value of both exports and foreign currency earnings. Oil and gas revenues are affected by the value of crude oil on the international market. It has been estimated that at the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) quota level (December 2004), a one-dollar change in the price of crude oil on the international market would alter Iran's oil revenues by US$1 billion.In 2012, Iran, which exports around 1.5 million barrels of crude oil a day, was the second-largest exporter among the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In the same year, officials in Iran estimated that Iran's annual oil and gas revenues could reach $250 billion by 2015. However, the industry was disrupted by an international embargo from July 2012 through January 2016. Iran plans to invest a total of $500 billion in the oil sector before 2025.
Views: 17 wikipedia tts
Chevron Corporation | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevron_Corporation 00:02:04 1 History 00:02:14 1.1 Predecessors 00:04:16 1.2 Formation of the Chevron name 00:08:12 1.3 Merger with Texaco and post-merger 00:11:08 2 Operations 00:11:35 2.1 Upstream 00:15:15 2.2 Downstream 00:17:51 2.3 Alternative energy 00:20:44 3 Corporate affairs 00:20:53 3.1 Finance 00:21:37 3.2 Headquarters 00:22:39 3.3 Political contributions 00:23:09 3.4 Board of directors 00:23:54 4 Niger Delta Partnership Initiative 00:24:29 5 Controversies 00:24:39 5.1 Environmental damage in Ecuador 00:29:38 5.2 Oil spills in Angola 00:30:13 5.3 U.S. Clean Air Act Settlements 00:31:47 5.4 NiMH battery technology for automobiles 00:35:45 5.5 Niger Delta shootings 00:36:57 5.6 UN sanctions 00:37:30 5.7 Richmond, California refinery 00:39:27 5.8 Oil spill off the coast of Rio de Janeiro 00:40:35 5.9 iKS Endeavor/i explosion 00:42:00 5.10 Forest Fire in Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh 00:42:29 5.11 Polish gas exploration 00:44:07 5.12 Argentina agreement and protests 00:45:09 5.13 Public Eye Lifetime Award 00:46:14 5.14 Global warming 00:46:49 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8996151715884524 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. One of the successor companies of Standard Oil, it is headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active in more than 180 countries. Chevron is engaged in every aspect of the oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy industries, including hydrocarbon exploration and production; refining, marketing and transport; chemicals manufacturing and sales; and power generation. Chevron is one of the world's largest oil companies; as of 2017, it ranked nineteenth in the Fortune 500 list of the top US closely held and public corporations and sixteenth on the Fortune Global 500 list of the top 500 corporations worldwide. It was also one of the Seven Sisters that dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. Chevron's downstream operations manufacture and sell products such as fuels, lubricants, additives and petrochemicals. The company's most significant areas of operations are the west coast of North America, the U.S. Gulf Coast, Southeast Asia, South Korea, Australia and South Africa. In 2010, Chevron sold an average 3.1 million barrels per day (490×103 m3/d) of refined products like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. Chevron's alternative energy operations include geothermal, solar, wind power, biofuel, fuel cells, and hydrogen. In 2011–2013, the company planned to spend at least $2 billion on research and acquisition of renewable power ventures. Chevron has claimed to be the world's largest producer of geothermal energy. In October 2011, Chevron launched a 29-MW thermal solar-to-steam facility in the Coalinga Field to produce the steam for enhanced oil recovery. The project is the largest of its kind in the world.
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