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Regulation of Blood Glucose
 
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Views: 42244 AK LECTURES
Insulin and glucagon | Chemical Processes | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
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Visit us (http://www.khanacademy.org/science/healthcare-and-medicine) for health and medicine content or (http://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat) for MCAT related content. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/chemical-processes/bioenergetics/v/tissue-specific-metabolism-and-the-metabolic-states?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/chemical-processes/bioenergetics/v/why-we-need-metabolism?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 295497 khanacademymedicine
Regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis | Biomolecules | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
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What are the major forms of regulation in metabolism? How do these apply to glycolysis and gluconeogenesis? Created by Jasmine Rana. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/carbohydrate-metabolism/v/pentose-phosphate-pathway?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/carbohydrate-metabolism/v/gluconeogenesis-unique-reactions?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 299156 khanacademymedicine
Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism
 
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Video Supplemental Instruction by the Teaching Center, UF's Learning Support Center http://teachingcenter.ufl.edu/vsi
Views: 55729 UF Teaching Center
Metabolism | Regulation of Glycolysis
 
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Ninja Nerds, SUPPORT | https://www.gofundme.com/ninja-nerd-science Join us in this video where we discuss glycolysis in further detail and go into the specifics on the regulation of glycolysis and the enzymes involved. ***PLEASE SUPPORT US*** PATREON | https://www.patreon.com/NinjaNerdScience ***EVERY DOLLAR HELPS US GROW & IMPROVE OUR QUALITY*** FACEBOOK | https://www.facebook.com/NinjaNerdScience INSTAGRAM | https://www.instagram.com/ninjanerdscience/ ✎ For general inquiries email us at: [email protected]
Views: 43213 Ninja Nerd Science
Regulation of glycogen metabolism | Glycogen metabolism lecture 3
 
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Regulation of glycogen metabolism - This lecture explains about how the glycogen metabolism is regulated in cell with Hormones like insulin and glucagon and epinephrine. Here we will see the mechanism of insulin in controlling the blood glucose level by converting blood glucose into glycogen and store in the liver and it also states how glucagon secretion helps in the degradation of the glycogen into glucose so that energy can be produced from it. So watch this biochemistry lecture to understand about the regulation of glycogen synthesis and glycogen breakdown. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the lecture video on glycogen metabolism regulation.
Views: 18444 Shomu's Biology
Insulin and Glucagon Overview
 
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Views: 351022 Armando Hasudungan
Insulin and the Regulation of Glucose in the Blood
 
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Milwaukee School of Engineering's Center for BioMolecular Modeling discusses the role of the protein insulin in the regulation of glucose in the bloodstream.
Views: 461854 MarkHoelzer
Insulin and Glucagon
 
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Learn how glucose levels in the blood are regulated by insulin and glucagon.
Views: 8616 Raja Narayan
Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
 
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http://armandoh.org/ Regulatory reaction in Glycolysis and Gbuconeogensis, and what products, enzymes and components promote or inhibit the enzymes in these reactions. https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram: http://instagram.com/armandohasudungan Twitter: https://twitter.com/Armando71021105
Views: 175872 Armando Hasudungan
Glycogen metabolism regulation
 
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Biochemistry Lecture on Glycogen metabolism regulation. http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Glycogen phosphorylase is regulated by both allosteric control and by phosphorylation. Hormones such as epinephrine, insulin and glucagon regulate glycogen phosphorylase using second messenger amplification systems that are linked to G proteins. Epinephrine activates adenylate cyclase through a seven transmembrane receptor coupled to Gs which, in turn, activates adenylate cyclase to increase intracellular concentrations of cAMP. cAMP binds to and releases an active form of protein kinase A (PKA). Next, PKA phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase, which, in turn, phosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase b, transforming it into the active glycogen phosphorylase a. This phosphorylation is added onto the glycogen phosphorylase b serine 14. In the liver, glucagon activates another G-protein-linked receptor that triggers a different cascade, resulting in the activation of Phospholipase C (PLC). PLC indirectly causes the release of calcium from the hepatocytes' endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. The increased calcium availability binds to the calmodulin subunit and activates glycogen phosphorylase kinase. Glycogen phosphorylase kinase activates glycogen phosphorylase in the same manner mentioned previously. Glycogen phosphorylase b is not always inactive in muscle, as it can be activated allosterically by AMP. An increase in AMP concentration, which occurs during strenuous exercise, signals energy demand. AMP activates glycogen phosphorylase b by changing its conformation from a tense to a relaxed form. This relaxed form has similar enzymatic properties as the phosphorylated enzyme. An increase in ATP concentration opposes this activation by displacing AMP from the nucleotide binding site, indicating sufficient energy stores. Upon eating a meal, there is a release of insulin, signaling glucose availability in the blood. Insulin indirectly activates PP-1 and phosphodiesterase. The PP-1 directly dephosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase a, reforming the inactive glycogen phosphorylase b. The phosphodiesterase converts cAMP to AMP. This activity removes the second messenger (generated by glucagon and epinephrine) and inhibits PKA. In this manner, PKA can no longer cause the phosphorylation cascade that ends with formation of (active) glycogen phosphorylase a. These modifications initiated by insulin end glycogenolysis in order to preserve what glycogen stores are left in the cell and trigger glycogenesis (rebuilding of glycogen). Phosphorylase a and phosphorylase b each exist in two forms a T (tense) inactive state and R (relaxed) state. Phosphorylase b is normally in the T state, inactive due to the physiological presence of ATP and Glucose 6 phosphate, and Phosphorylase a is normally in the R state (active). An isoenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase exists in the liver sensitive to glucose concentration, as the liver acts as a glucose exporter. In essence, liver phosphorylase is responsive to glucose, which causes a very responsive transition from the R to T form, inactivating it; furthermore, liver phosphorylase is insensitive to AMP. Glycogenolysis is regulated hormonally in response to blood sugar levels by glucagon and insulin, and stimulated by epinephrine during the fight-or-flight response. In myocytes, glycogen degradation may also be stimulated by neural signals.[2] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Views: 39020 Shomu's Biology
Hormonal Regulation of Glucose Metabolism
 
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Subject : Food and Nutrition Paper: Nutritional Biochemistry
Views: 269 Vidya-mitra
Glucose Insulin and Diabetes
 
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The basics of Type I and Type II diabetes More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=rPLjSY00JlE
Views: 560458 Khan Academy
Glucose Animation
 
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Views: 142169 glucosemetabolism
Physiology of Insulin and Glucagon
 
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A description of the competing roles of insulin and glycogen, including their effects on glucose homeostasis, and other metabolic hormones (e.g. GLP1, GIP, cortisol, growth hormone, etc...). Pancreatic histology and insulin synthesis are also briefly discussed.
Views: 69522 Strong Medicine
Glucose metabolism
 
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wish u all success (enjoy)
Views: 6167 loka loka
Metabolism | The Metabolic Map: Carbohydrates | Part 1
 
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Ninja Nerds, Join us for this three part series on the various metabolic pathways. During part 1, we talk about carbohydrate metabolism. ***PLEASE SUPPORT US*** PATREON | https://www.patreon.com/NinjaNerdScience ***EVERY DOLLAR HELPS US GROW & IMPROVE OUR QUALITY*** FACEBOOK | https://www.facebook.com/NinjaNerdScience INSTAGRAM | https://www.instagram.com/ninjanerdscience/ ✎ For general inquiries email us at: [email protected]
Views: 30657 Ninja Nerd Science
Glucose Metabolism.mpg
 
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Views: 171615 UVUProfessor
Metabolism of carbohydrate part 1
 
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General introduction
Views: 76066 Priyanka Jain
The Role of Insulin in the Human Body
 
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Developed and produced by http://www.MechanismsinMedicine.com Animation Description: This patient-friendly animation describes the main role of insulin in the human body. When food is ingested, it travels along the digestive tract where it is broken down into its component nutrients in order to be absorbed into the bloodstream. One such nutrient is glucose, a simple sugar. Glucose gets absorbed by the stomach and intestines and then enters the bloodstream. It travels through the circulation to all body cells. Once absorbed into the bloodstream, glucose circulates causing the blood sugar level to rise. An increased level of blood sugar sends a signal to the pancreatic beta cells, which respond by secreting the hormone insulin into the circulation. Insulin is necessary for glucose to reach and be used by several important target tissues throughout the body. These include the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Insulin is necessary to keep blood glucose levels stable in the body. Circulating insulin binds to specific insulin receptors located on the cell membrane of tissue cells throughout the body. Upon binding, a signal is sent to the nucleus of the cell, instructing it to transport glucose channels to the cell surface. These channels allow glucose to enter the cell. Glucose enters the cell through a process called facilitated diffusion.
Views: 637541 Mechanisms in Medicine
Metabolism | Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism
 
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Ninja Nerds, Join us in this video where we continue our discussion about glycogenolysis, and further expand on that concept where we talk about the regulation of glycogen metabolism, and the various enzymes that are involved. ***PLEASE SUPPORT US*** PATREON | https://www.patreon.com/NinjaNerdScience ***EVERY DOLLAR HELPS US GROW & IMPROVE OUR QUALITY*** FACEBOOK | https://www.facebook.com/NinjaNerdScience INSTAGRAM | https://www.instagram.com/ninjanerdscience/ ✎ For general inquiries email us at: [email protected]
Views: 26253 Ninja Nerd Science
Insulin and Glucose Regulation of Glycogenesis
 
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Views: 46237 AK LECTURES
Fed State
 
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Views: 107203 Armando Hasudungan
Metabolism & Nutrition, Part 1: Crash Course A&P #36
 
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Metabolism is a complex process that has a lot more going on than personal trainers and commercials might have you believe. Today we are exploring some of its key parts, including vital nutrients -- such as water, vitamins, minerals, carbs, fats, and proteins -- as well as how anabolic reactions build structures and require energy, while catabolic reactions tear things apart and release energy. Anatomy of Hank Poster: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-anatomy-and-physiology-poster -- Table of Contents Water, Vitamins, Minerals, Carbs, Fats and Proteins 3:47 Anabolic Reactions Build Structures and Require Energy 2:59 Catabolic Reactions Tear Things Apart and Release Energy 3:17 Metabolism 2:30 *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark , Elliot Beter, Moritz Schmidt, Jeffrey Thompson, Ian Dundore, Jacob Ash, Jessica Wode, Today I Found Out, Christy Huddleston, James Craver, Chris Peters, SR Foxley, Steve Marshall, Simun Niclasen, Eric Kitchen, Robert Kunz, Avi Yashchin, Jason A Saslow, Jan Schmid, Daniel Baulig, Christian , Anna-Ester Volozh -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 1357614 CrashCourse
Basics of Metabolism
 
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These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=wQ1QGZ6gJ8w
Views: 1045348 khanacademymedicine
METABOLISM & REGULATION OF BLOOD SUGAR by Professor Fink
 
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Review of Metabolism & Regulation of Blood Sugar. The Lecture reviews Anabolic Reactions (including Dehydration Synthesis & Reduction Reactions), Catabolic Reactions (including Hydrolysis & Oxidation Reactions), OIL RIG, Insulin, Glucagon, Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis. Reference is made to Intracellular Fluid, Extracellular Fluid, free radicals, anti-oxidants, pancreatic islets, and the oxidation of sugars. FOR A MORE ADVANCED PRESENTATION ON THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DIABETES, the Types of Diabetes and the different medications used to treat Diabetes, you may wish to watch this 3-Part Series of Video Lectures: ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS; PART 1 OVERVIEW OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DIABETES https://youtu.be/X7ELcJpRZEc ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS; PART 2 ORAL ANTI DIABETIC DRUGS https://youtu.be/qvaztKvcasU ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS; PART 3 INSULINS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFmqsGE5sy4 Check-out professor fink's web-site or additional resources in Biology, Anatomy, Physiology & Pharmacology: www.professorfink.com Down-loadable e-Books of the Lecture Outlines by Professor Fink can be purchased from the WLAC Bookstore at: https://wlac.redshelf.com/ “Hard Copy” Lecture Outlines can be purchased from the WLAC Bookstore at: http://onlinestore.wlac.edu/fink.asp
Views: 64085 professorfink
Hormones & Blood Glucose
 
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Following on from thermoregulation, we look at how hormones control the levels of glucose in our blood. This video relates to AQA A2 Biology, Unit 5 Control in cells and organisms.
Views: 33179 Mr Pollock
Glucose homeostasis lesson 1, Glucose control and insulin
 
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You can support the work of campbellteaching, at no cost whatsoever to yourself, if you use the link below as your bookmark to access Amazon. Thank you. If in the US use this link http://goo.gl/mDMfj5 If in the UK use this link http://goo.gl/j0htQ5 An introductory lesson on the homeostasis of blood glucose. This first section looks at what happens when blood sugar levels are to high and need to be lowered using insulin.
Views: 21187 Dr. John Campbell
Metabolism & Nutrition, Part 2: Crash Course A&P #37
 
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If you're like us, you love the sound of a brunch buffet. But not everything you eat at that glorious buffet is going to be turned into energy. Your body has to work with different forms of food in different ways. In this episode of Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology, Hank takes us through more about our metabolism including cellular respiration, atp, glycogenesis, and how insulin regulates our blood sugar levels. Anatomy of Hank Poster: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-anatomy-and-physiology-poster -- Table of Contents Cellular Respiration converts glucose into ATP 2:03 Glycogenesis converts glucose to glycogen 3:26 Lipogenesis converts glucose into triglycerides 5:58 Insulin regulates blood sugar levels 5:22 *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Fatima Iqbal, Penelope Flagg, Eugenia Karlson, Alex S, Jirat, Tim Curwick, Christy Huddleston, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Today I Found Out, Avi Yashchin, Chris Peters, Eric Knight, Jacob Ash, Simun Niclasen, Jan Schmid, Elliot Beter, Sandra Aft, SR Foxley, Ian Dundore, Daniel Baulig, Jason A Saslow, Robert Kunz, Jessica Wode, Steve Marshall, Anna-Ester Volozh, Christian, Caleb Weeks, Jeffrey Thompson, James Craver, and Markus Persson -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 666955 CrashCourse
Regulating Glycogen Breakdown in Liver
 
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Views: 31665 AK LECTURES
Glycogen - Regulation  Detailed Review
 
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Glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscle is regulated allosterically and hormonally. two main enzymes which are regulated are glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase. Glycogen phosphorylase is regulated allosterically by glucose 6 phosphate, glucose, ATP and AMP, in the same way glycogen synthase is allosterically regulated by glucose 6 phosphate. Two main hormones that regulate glycogen metabolism is insulin and glucagon. Hormone epinephrine also has a regulatory mechanism in the liver and skeletal muscle by binding to either beta adrenergic receptor or alpha adrenergic receptor. glucagon binding to G protein coupled glucagon receptor to activate adenylate cyclase which increases cAMP to activate protein kinase A which in-turn activate glycogen phosphorylase kinase which in turn activate glycogen phosphorylase to break glycogen into glucose 1 phosphate. My video link on glycogen synthesis and degradation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6WBxQZa7Uc My video link on glycogen storage diseases https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dsWBv7d2ECc My video link on net ATP gain from glycogen degradation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tkKnSPD6-aQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OgNOet4AOVo&t=66s My video link on glycolysis and other carbohydrate metabolism https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgHR5EhyYlM&list=PLCKWofc6SQToTFfeoggr6ythA8vsSXZGv For REGULAR UPDATES you can consider SUBSCRIBING to this channel: https://goo.gl/eMs6rw For short write up of theory on USMLE Biochemistry and other topics on food and nutrition, obesity, weight loss tips you may visit my site: http://www.drmungli.com/ You can follow my Facebook page Biochemistry Made Easy: https://goo.gl/23S9Y7 checkout other awesome channels to learn biochemistry and other subjects from: ThePenguineProf: https://goo.gl/ySNURB Osmosis: https://goo.gl/d1zBs1 Armando: https://goo.gl/jcYwwR Khan Academy: https://goo.gl/7YmIf9 Nucleus Medical Media: https://goo.gl/xdlqsr Trending medical youtube channels: https://goo.gl/nUuJOL 20 useful sites for medical students: https://goo.gl/aPnc19 Biochemistry single line questions site: https://goo.gl/PFCewk
Views: 2846 Dr.Mungli
Introduction to Glucose Metabolism
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/introduction-to-glucose-metabolism Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 196340 AK LECTURES
Glycolysis Pathway Made Simple !!  Biochemistry Lecture on Glycolysis
 
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Help us Improve our content Support us on Patreon : https://www.patreon.com/medsimplfied . Glycolysis Pathway Made Simple! Biochemistry Lecture on Glycolysis LIKE US ON FACEBOOK : https://fb.me/Medsimplified Please SUPPORT MEDSIMPLIFEID BY BUYING ANYTHINGFROM AMAZON OR FLIPKART USING OUR AFFILIATE LINKS : AMAZON US--- https://goo.gl/XSJtTx AMAZON India http://goo.gl/QsUhku FLIPKART http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN FLIPKART MOBILE APP http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term[1] for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). Glycolysis is a determined sequence of ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The intermediates provide entry points to glycolysis. For example, most monosaccharides, such as fructose and galactose, can be converted to one of these intermediates. The intermediates may also be directly useful. For example, the intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a source of the glycerol that combines with fatty acids to form fat. Glycolysis is an oxygen independent metabolic pathway, meaning that it does not use molecular oxygen (i.e. atmospheric oxygen) for any of its reactions. However the products of glycolysis (pyruvate and NADH + H+) are sometimes metabolized using atmospheric oxygen.[4] When molecular oxygen is used for the metabolism of the products of glycolysis the process is usually referred to as aerobic, whereas if no oxygen is used the process is said to be anaerobic.[5] Thus, glycolysis occurs, with variations, in nearly all organisms, both aerobic and anaerobic. The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is one of the most ancient metabolic pathways.[6] Indeed, the reactions that constitute glycolysis and its parallel pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, occur metal-catalyzed under the oxygen-free conditions of the Archean oceans, also in the absence of enzymes. Glycolysis could thus have originated from chemical constraints of the prebiotic world. Glycolysis occurs in most organisms in the cytosol of the cell. The most common type of glycolysis is the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP pathway), which was discovered by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof, and Jakub Karol Parnas. Glycolysis also refers to other pathways, such as the Entner–Doudoroff pathway and various heterofermentative and homofermentative pathways. However, the discussion here will be limited to the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway. Preparatory phase The first five steps are regarded as the preparatory (or investment) phase, since they consume energy to convert the glucose into two three-carbon sugar phosphates Pay-off phase The second half of glycolysis is known as the pay-off phase, characterised by a net gain of the energy-rich molecules ATP and NADH. Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose molecule. This yields 2 NADH molecules and 4 ATP molecules, leading to a net gain of 2 NADH molecules and 2 ATP molecules from the glycolytic pathway per glucose. Watch again : https://youtu.be/8qij1m7XUhk -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- CHECK OUT NEWEST VIDEO: "Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA structure " https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lZRAShqft0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 432071 MEDSimplified
Glycolysis - Metabolism
 
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Glycolysis - Metabolism Watch 800+ Medical Lectures at https://www.DrNajeebLectures.com The metabolic pathway of glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate by via a series of intermediate metabolites. ─────────────── DR. NAJEEB LECTURES ─────────────── Dr. Najeeb Lectures are the World's Most Popular Medical Lectures. Over 1 Million+ students from 190 countries trust Dr. Najeeb Lectures to Master Medical Sciences. Sign up for a membership plan on our website and access 800+ videos on Basic Medical Sciences & Clinical Medicine. ───────────────── OUR YOUTUBE CHANNEL ───────────────── Here on YouTube, we only upload free sample videos. Most of them are teaser videos (not complete lectures). If you like these videos you can check out our entire video library on our website at https://www.DrNajeebLectures.com. ────────────────────── WHY SIGN UP FOR MEMBERSHIP? ────────────────────── ► 800+ Medical Lectures. ► Basic Medical Sciences. ► Clinical Medicine. ► New videos every week in HD. ► Download videos for offline access. ► Fast video playback (0.5x - 2x) ► Watch videos on any device. ► Fanatic customer support. ► Trusted by 1 Million+ students. Learn more at https://www.DrNajeebLectures.com
Views: 42709 Dr. Najeeb Lectures
Sugar And Carbohydrate Metabolism Made Easy To Understand [Updated Version]
 
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Dr Kiel quickly reviews sugar and carbohydrate metabolism and makes it as easy to understand as possible. MORE HEALTH EDUCATION https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLt6puIp2CPGX8ilSikABEAc0wiS-slL-h READ MORE https://www.healthydocs.net/home/2017/sugar-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-made-easy-to-understand GLYCEMIC INDEX EXPLAINED https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1YDR2S7SPU&t TOTAL DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE EXPLAINED https://youtu.be/VdPKcsLoQOo Please like, subscribe, comment and share! SUBSCRIBE: https://www.youtube.com/user/DrJohnKiel FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/medicinelifestyle TWITTER: https://twitter.com/LifestyleMedYou I wanted to take a few minutes to discuss the basics of how your body metabolizes carbohydrates in general, and specifically sugar. In order to understand why certain dietary choices are good or bad for you, it’s important to understand the basics and how it affects your body. This video is designed for people with little-to-no science background to help simplify how carb metabolism works in our body. I’m going to intentionally glaze over some of the more detail oriented aspects and focus on the larger picture. The purpose of food, including sugars, fats and proteins is to sustain the body. One of the major components of this sustenance is to maintain a basal blood sugar level that allows your body to function. All your vital organs – including your brain, heart, kidneys etc as well as your skeletal muscle – depend on glucose as it’s primary source of energy. This energy, which occurs at the cellular level drives everything in your body from head to toe. Glycemic Index http://www.glycemicindex.com/ USDA nutritional database http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list Carbohydrate metabolism is complicated but you should understand how it works. Carbs can be referred to as starches, sugar, glucose, monosaccharide, polysaccharide, fructose, galactose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose. The purpose is to produce cellular energy, adenosine triphosphate, ATP and includes electron transports chain. This is known as aerobic respiratory and includes the citrus acid cycle, TCA, electron transport chain. There are many sources of carbs, they can be simple or complex. You should understand carb cycling, deficit, metabolism, anabolism, catabolism, breakdown, macromolecules, macronutrients, synthesis, counting carbs, daily requirements, diabetes mellitus, digestion, glycogen, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis as it’s all very important and complex.
Views: 22493 Lifestyle Medicine
diseases of glucose metabolism
 
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This video screencast was created with Doceri on an iPad. Doceri is free in the iTunes app store. Learn more at http://www.doceri.com
Views: 1701 Koranda Wallace
Glycogen Metabolism | Glycogenolysis | Pathway, Enzymes and Regulation
 
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Lesson on Glycogen Metabolism (Glycogenolysis) pathway: Step-by-step overview of the pathway, including regulation, advantages, and disadvantages of glycogenolysis, important enzymes (glycogen phosphorylase) and differences between liver and muscle utilization of glycogen. Hey everyone, in this lesson you will learn about glycogen metabolism (catabolism of glycogen), how glycogen is broken down and used, where in the body this breakdown occurs, and how glycogen catabolism is regulated. You will also learn how and why the liver and skeletal muscle use glycogen, and what the advantages and disadvantages are for glycogen utilization. I hope you find this video helpful. If you find this video helpful, please don't forget to like and subscribe for more videos like this one! :) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For books and other supplemental information on these topics, please check out my Amazon Affiliate Page ➜ https://www.amazon.com/shop/jjmedicine Support future lessons and lectures ➜ https://www.patreon.com/jjmedicine Follow me on Twitter! ➜ https://twitter.com/JJ_Medicine
Views: 22257 JJ Medicine
Glycolysis biochemistry
 
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Glycolysis biochemistry - This lecture explains about the Glycolysis pathway step by step with the involvement of enzymes that will convert Glucose into pyruvate in the cytosol of every living cell. Glycolysis is the first major step in carbohydrate metabolism that helps to initiate the process of cellular respiration. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the biochemistry lecture on Glycolysis pathway.
Views: 158515 Shomu's Biology
150-Effects of Glucagon & Epinephrine
 
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Review of the effects of the hormones glucagon and epinephrine on glucose metabolism
Leptin and the neural circuit regulation food intake and glucose metabolism
 
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Leptin and the neural circuit regulation food intake and glucose metabolism Air date: Wednesday, January 11, 2017, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 00:57:39 Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The discovery of leptin has led to the elucidation of a robust physiologic system that maintains fat stores at a relatively constant level. Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue in proportion to its mass. This hormone circulates in blood and acts on the hypothalamus to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. When fat mass falls, plasma leptin levels fall stimulating appetite and suppressing energy expenditure until fat mass is restored. When fat mass increases, leptin levels increase, suppressing appetite until weight is lost. By such a mechanism, total energy stores are stably maintained within a relatively narrow range. Recessive mutations in the leptin gene are associated with massive obesity in mice and some humans. Treatment with recombinant leptin markedly reduces food intake and body weight. The low leptin levels in patients with leptin mutations are also associated with multiple abnormalities including infertility, diabetes, and immune abnormalities all of which are corrected by leptin treatment. These findings have established important links between energy stores and many other physiologic systems and led to the use of leptin as a treatment for an increasing number of other human conditions including a subset of obesity, some forms of diabetes including lipodystrophy and hypothalamic amenorrhea, the cessation of menstruation seen in extremely thin women. Identification of a physiologic system that controls energy balance establishes a biologic basis for obesity. Recent studies have explored the relationship between leptin and the reward value of food. In addition, new methods for identifying neurons activated by leptin and other stimuli have been developed as have methods for noninvasively activating cells using radio waves. These new approaches are being applied to studies of the neural processes that control feeding, a complex motivational behavior. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals Author: Jeffrey Friedman, M.D., Ph.D., Professor, The Rockefeller University; Director, Starr Center for Human Genetics; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?21075
Views: 14988 nihvcast
Metabolism | Glycolysis
 
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SUPPORT | https://www.gofundme.com/ninja-nerd-science Ninja Nerds, In this video we discuss the ten steps associated with glycolysis, as well as the various enzymes regulating this process. We also go into detail on the byproducts developed from the glycolytic pathway. ***PLEASE SUPPORT US*** PATREON | https://www.patreon.com/NinjaNerdScience ***EVERY DOLLAR HELPS US GROW & IMPROVE OUR QUALITY*** FACEBOOK | https://www.facebook.com/NinjaNerdScience INSTAGRAM | https://www.instagram.com/ninjanerdscience/ ✎ For general inquiries email us at: [email protected]
Views: 117042 Ninja Nerd Science
Overview of glucose metabolism
 
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Biochemistry lecture about Overview of glucose metabolism. http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways across species: plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis storing the absorbed energy internally, often in the form of starch or lipids. Plant components are consumed by animals and fungi, and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Oxidation of one gram of carbohydrate yields approximately 4 kcal of energy and from lipids about 9 kcal. Energy obtained from metabolism (e.g. oxidation of glucose) is usually stored temporarily within cells in the form of ATP. Organisms capable of aerobic respiration metabolize glucose and oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. Carbohydrates can be chemically divided into complex and simple.[1] Simple carbohydrates consist of single or double sugar units (monosaccharides and disaccharides, respectively). Sucrose or table sugar (a disaccharide) is a common example of a simple carbohydrate. Complex carbohydrates contain three or more sugar units linked in a chain. They are digested by enzymes to release the simple sugars. Starch, for example, is a polymer of glucose units and is typically broken down to glucose. Simple and complex carbohydrates are digested at similar rates, so the distinction is not very useful for distinguishing nutritional quality.[1] Cellulose is also a polymer of glucose but it cannot be digested by most organisms. Some bacteria that produce enzymes for cellulose live inside the gut of some mammals such as cows, and when cows eat plants, the cellulose is broken down by the bacteria and some of it is released into the gut. Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than fats or those amino acids (components of proteins) that can be used for fuel. In animals, the most important carbohydrate is glucose. The concentration of glucose in the blood is used as the main control for the central metabolic hormone, insulin. Starch, and cellulose in a few organisms (e.g., some animals (such as termites[2]) and some microorganisms (such as protists and bacteria), both being glucose polymers, are disassembled during digestion and absorbed as glucose. Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharides components; many animals lack this enzyme in adulthood. Carbohydrates are typically stored as long polymers of glucose molecules with glycosidic bonds for structural support (e.g. chitin, cellulose) or for energy storage (e.g. glycogen, starch). However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the large molecular weight of the solvated water-carbohydrate complex. In most organisms, excess carbohydrates are regularly catabolised to form acetyl-CoA, which is a feed stock for the fatty acid synthesis pathway; fatty acids, triglycerides, and other lipids are commonly used for long-term energy storage. The hydrophobic character of lipids makes them a much more compact form of energy storage than hydrophilic carbohydrates. However, animals, including humans, lack the necessary enzymatic machinery and so do not synthesize glucose from lipids, though glycerol can be converted to glucose.[3] All carbohydrates share a general formula of approximately CnH2nOn; glucose is C6H12O6. Monosaccharides may be chemically bonded together to form disaccharides such as sucrose and longer polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Views: 34507 Shomu's Biology
Gluconeogenesis Pathway Made Simple - BIOCHEMISTERY
 
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Help us Improve our content Support us on Patreon : https://www.patreon.com/medsimplfied Gluconeogenesis Follow on FaceBook : https://goo.gl/syceUO BUY USING AFFILIATE LINKS : AMAZON US--- https://goo.gl/XSJtTx AMAZON India http://goo.gl/QsUhku FLIPKART http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate. Gluconeogenesis is one of several main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, avoiding low levels (hypoglycemia). Other means include the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis),[1] fatty acid breakdown. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms.[2] In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. In ruminants, this tends to be a continuous process.[3] In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. The process is highly endergonic until it is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP or GTP, effectively making the process exergonic. For example, the pathway leading from pyruvate to glucose-6-phosphate requires 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of GTP to proceed spontaneously. Gluconeogenesis is often associated with ketosis. Gluconeogenesis is also a target of therapy for type 2 diabetes, such as the antidiabetic drug, metformin, which inhibits glucose formation and stimulates glucose uptake by cells.[4] In ruminants, because dietary carbohydrates tend to be metabolized by rumen organisms, gluconeogenesis occurs regardless of fasting, low-carbohydrate diets, exercise, etc -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- CHECK OUT NEWEST VIDEO: "Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA structure " https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lZRAShqft0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 212557 MEDSimplified